HistoryThis section has been translated automatically.
Gianotti, 1967; Crosti, 1955
DefinitionThis section has been translated automatically.
Reactive, intermittent, symmetrical, papular exanthema in young children, which has been described primarily in association with HBV infection, but can also be observed in connection with numerous other viral diseases (e.g. EBV infection, Coxsackie virus infection).
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Occurrence/EpidemiologyThis section has been translated automatically.
EtiopathogenesisThis section has been translated automatically.
The pathogenesis is largely unexplained.
Self-limited Id reactions to viral and bacterial antigens are discussed.
In larger studies, the connection with a viral infection was proven in about 50% of the patients (mostly EBV or hepatitis C/B; less frequently coxsackie viruses, cytomegaloviruses, adenoviruses, enteroviruses, RSV, parainfluenza virus, parvovirus B19, HHV-6, HHV-7, HIV, COVID-19). The occurrence of GCS in the context of an infection with Mollusca contagiosa is not entirely rare.
In industrialized countries, Gianotti-Crosti syndrome is most frequently associated with EBV.
In isolated cases, its occurrence has been associated with infections caused by β-hemolytic streptococci, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or vaccinations against poliomyelitis, diphtheria, influenza, or pertussis.
Children with atopic diathesis are frequently affected.
ManifestationThis section has been translated automatically.
Occurs in children between 6 months and 14 years of age. The average age of first manifestation is about 2 years.
LocalizationThis section has been translated automatically.
Preferably face, here especially cheeks, extremities (extensor sides), buttocks (symmetrical).
Clinical featuresThis section has been translated automatically.
After a short prodromal phase with a slight feeling of illness, subfebrile temperatures, pharyngitis, gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea and diarrhoea), episodic, disseminated, red or brown, smooth or scaly, 0.1-0.5 cm large, clearly raised papules and vesicles appear, which can also confluence in places to form larger plaques (rather untypical).
The exanthema is typically not itchy.
A Köbner phenomenon (isomorphism) can often be detected (linear arrangement on externally irritated areas, e.g. in scratch marks).
Generalized lymphadenopathy (cervical, axillary, inguinal) and/or hepatomegaly (anicteric hepatitis) are possible.
LaboratoryThis section has been translated automatically.
- In 50-80% of cases: lymphocytosis, but also lymphopenia, eosinophilia, elevated ESR.
- More rarely: serum transaminases elevation, positive hepatitis B or EBV serology, elevated IgE; evidence of type I sensitization.
Differential diagnosisThis section has been translated automatically.
General therapyThis section has been translated automatically.
External therapyThis section has been translated automatically.
Internal therapyThis section has been translated automatically.
Progression/forecastThis section has been translated automatically.
LiteratureThis section has been translated automatically.
- Berger EM et al. (2012) Experience with molluscum contagiosum and associated inflammatory reactions in
pediatric dermatology practice: the bump that rashes. Arch Dermatol 148):1257-1264.
- Brandt O et al (2006) Gianotti-Crosti syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol 54: 136-145.
- Crosti A, Gianotti F (1967) Infantile papular acrodermatitis and lymphoreticulotropic viroses. Minerva Dermatol 42: 264-278
- Gianotti F (1955) Rilievi di una particolare casistica tossinfettiva caratterizzata de eruzione eritemato-infiltrativa desquamativa a focolai lenticolari, a sede elettiva acroesposta. G Ital Dermatol 96: 678-697
- Magyarlaki I et al (1991) Papular acrodermatitis of childhood (Gianotti-Crosti disease). Pedr Dermatol 8: 224-227
- Smith KJ, Skelton H (2000) Histopathologic features seen in Gianotti-Crosti syndrome secondary to Epstein-Barr virus. J Am Acad Dermatol 43: 1076-1079
- Haug S et al. (2002) Gianotti-Crosti syndrome following immunization Hautarzt 53: 683-685.
- Ricci G et al (2003) Gianotti-Crosti syndrome and allergic background. Acta Derm Venereol 83: 202-205
- Schopf, R. Gianotti-Crosti syndrome in Epstein-Barr virus infection. Dermatologist 46, 714-716 (1995).
- Stefanato CM et al (2000) Gianotti-Crosti syndrome presenting as lichenoid dermatitis. Am J Dermatopathol 22: 162-165
- Terasaki K et al (2003) Gianotti-Crosti syndrome associated with endogenous reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus. Dermatology 207: 68-71
- Velangi SS, Tidman MJ (1998) Gianotti-Crosti syndrome after measles, mumps and rubella vaccination. Br J Dermatol 139: 1122-1123
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Outgoing links (19)Abt-letterer-siwe disease; Antihistamines, systemic; Contagious mollusc; COVID-19 and skin; Coxsackie virus infection; Cytomegalovirus; Hhv-4 virus infections; HHV-6; Id reaction; Koebner phenomenon; ... Show all
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