All authors

Altmeyer's Encyclopedia is an independent, evidence-based medical information resource on specialist level. Since 1986 it has been continuously updated and expanded by only the most accomplished medical professionals in their fields.

Editorial Board

Prof. Dr. med. Peter Altmeyer

Dermatology/Phytotherapy/Vascular medicine/Cosmetology

One of the most well-known German dermatologists with decades of expertise in clinical dermatology. Professor emeritus at the Ruhr-University-Bochum, author of more than 30 textbooks and more than 700 scientific publications.

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Priv.-Doz. Dr. med. habil. Heinrich Dickel

Allergology

Head physician of the department of allergology, occupational and environmental dermatology. Spokesman of the Allergy Centre Ruhr (ACR) of the Ruhr-University Bochum and Chairman of the German Contact Allergy Group (DKG).

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Prof. Dr. med. Herbert Neumann

Internal medicine

Professor at the Ruhr-University-Bochum for internal medicine.

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Prof. Dr. med. Horst Przuntek

Neurology

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Prof. Dr. med. Guido Günther Heinrich Gerken

Gastroenterology

Professor of Gastroenterology and Hepatology at the University Hospital Essen.

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Prof. Dr. med. Sören G. Gatermann

Microbiology

Head of the Institute for Hygiene and Microbiology at the Ruhr-University Bochum.

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Prof. Dr. med. dent. Jochen Jackowski

Dentistry

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Advisors and Contributors Altmeyer's Encyclopedia is an independent, evidence-based medical information resource

Dr. med. Michael Ardabili

Dermatology

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Prof. Dr. med. E. Christophers

Dermatology

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Prof. Dr. med. Joachim Dissemond

Vascular medicine

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Prof. Dr. med. Tobias Görge

Vascular medicine

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Prof. Dr. med. Birgit Kahle

Vascular medicine

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Prof. Dr. med. Knut Kröger

Vascular medicine

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Prof. Dr. med. W. Marsch

Allergology

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Prof. Dr. med. Achim Mumme

Vascular medicine

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Prof. Dr. med. Eberhard Rabe

Vascular medicine

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Prof. Dr. med. Wolfram Sterry ✝

Dermatology

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Prof. Dr. med. Eggert Stockfleth

Dermatology

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Prof. Dr. med. N. Sönnichsen ✝

Dermatology

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Authors, Co-Authors and Lectors

Valiollah abbaspour Dr. Nessr Abu Rached Dr. Birgit Adam Nabil Agha Dr. SALEM ALANEZI Dr. med. Philipp Al Ghazal Dr. Mathias Altmeyer Tobias Altmeyer Maximilian Appel Dr. med. Michael Ardabili Dr. Maryam Ardestani Dr. Maryam Ardestani Dr. Tamara Arnoldner Dr. med. Sanaz Ashrafi Dr. med. Firas Asper Ayşe Atan Dr. med. dent. Florence Auderset Philipp Augustin Lena Bartelt Albert Baschong Dr. med. Jens Bäte Evgenia Bauer Michael Bauer Julian Baur Diana Bayer Dr. Anas Benahmed Dr. med. Sophia Bender-Säbelkampf Dr. med. Stefan Berghem Priv.-Doz. Dr. med. Mattis Bertlich Cert. med. Kerstin Besmil Dr. med. Jörg Bettinger Niklas Blaha Dr. Rachela Bleuel Dr. med. Marcel Boede Dr. med. Stella Boleslawsky Andreas Bonkowsky Maria Bostelmann Dr. med. Nikolas Bounas-Pyrros Dorothée Bouschery Dr. med. Anja Brinkmann Franziska Buck Dr. med. Norbert Buhles Florian Burkhart Lukas Fabian Busch Dr. med. Nilgün Büyükakyüz Dr. med. Lucian Cajacob Dr. Stefan Cebulla Dr. med. Daniel Cekovic Andriani Charalambous Dr. med. Giannis Chatzimichail Dr. Dr. Benjamin Clanner-Engelshofen Dr. med. Andreas Colsman Dr. Phillip Constantin Dr. Behrus Darvishan Tassilo Dege Dr. med. Marie-Thérèse Demblin Dr. med. Karl-Friedrich Deml Dr. med. Maximilian Deußing Pascal de Waal Simon Deymann Dr. med. Christian Dietlin Dr. med. Onur Dikmen Carla Dohrendorf Alexander Draschl Dr. Konstantin Drexler Bastian Drollmann Sidonie Droste zu Senden Dr. med. Nicole Duschner Bahareh Ebrahimi Ramón Eichenberger Dr. med. Etienne Elbers Dr. med. Ouadie El Makhtoum Elrayesnajmeldeen Elrayes Dr. med. Tilman Erler Dr. Konstantin Ertner Florian Erwig Moritz Fabry Dr. med. Aresh Farokhnia Tarik Farrag Felix Feiler Niklaas Feldmann Sophie Feuchter Dr. med. Aleksandra Filkoska Dimitrievski Janik Fleißner Dr. med. Rupert Florian Dr. med. Nicole Fosse Dr. med. Marc Frerix Dr. med. Imke Friedel Ricarda Friedrich Johanna Sophia Frikkel Dr. med. Julia Fritsche Dr. med. Alexandra Fritz Johannes Fritz Kerstin Gaedigk Nomun Ganjuur Dr. Werner Gehring Irmela Gevers Dr. Zafar Ghori Noemi Glarner Leonardo Glowna Dr. med. Laura Gockeln Dr. med. Michael Grafenauer Dr. med. Stephan Große-Büning Lina Marie Grossmann Dr. med. Raphael Gruber Jens Grüger Pavel Grünwald Dr. med. Carole Guillet Dr. med. Ibrahim Güler Jim Haase Isabel Habermann Dr. med. Martin Hahn Cert. med. Martha Hähnle Veronika Hall Dr. Michael Hambardzumyan Dr. Elisabeth Hanf Dr. med. Gesa Hansen-Prenz Prof. Dr. Holger Hänßle Dr. Verena Häring Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Hartschuh Dr. med. Torsten Hauschild R. Havenith Dr. med. Johannes Heck Anemone Heineke Denise Heise Konrad Heisterkamp Dr. med. Conrad Hempel Dr. Lena Henry Dr. med. Helmut Hentschel Dr. med. Markus Heppt Dr. med. Selina Herbst Anne-Claire Herr Dr. Kathrin Hillmann Dr. med. Benedikt Hindelang Yannis Hoch Dr. med. Bernhard Hofer MSc Schwiedhard Hoffstall Moritz Hollstein Dr. Julia Holzgruber Sarah Holzhauer Dr. Katalin Horvath-Szögyi Siyawasch Hosseini Inga Hubrecht Dr. med. Svea Hüning Marc Ianachi Dr. Gunther Jacoby Priv.-Doz. Dr. med. Morteza Jafari Dr. med. Dagmar Jamiolkowski Dr. med. Philipp Jansen Jan Klaas Janßen Hannah Jaschinski Robert Jast Jannis Jelten Dr. med. Franziska Jochims Anna Juhnke Dr. med. Eva Kämmerer David Kaplytta Dr. med. Elena Kasche Dr. med. Fabian Kästele Dr. med. Robert Kasten R. Kellermann Dr. med. Carolin Kern Salim Khatib Dr. med. Lea Kiefer Britta Kießler Dr. Fidan Kil Agsin Kjasimov Dr. med. Benjamin Klein Rebekka Klein Dr. med. Marisa Klemp Dr. med. Dominic Klingler Dr. med. Elias Koch Dr. med. Ulrich Koch Dr. med. Lukas Kofler Prof. Dr. Dr. H. c. Peter Karl Kohl Dr. med. Wolfgang Koll Sarah Kolschen Dr. med. Lydia König Dr. med. Katja König Lars Koschorreck Dr. med. Caterina Kostic Katharina Kostka Julian Kött Dr. med. Bijan Koushk Jalali Dr. med. Marie-Paloma Krauß Dr. med. Almut Kremer Cert. ing. Christoph Kreps Dr. med. Jelena Krochmann Desiree Krüger Dr. med. Anja K.-Tessmann Marcus Kuchner Nagihan Kücükay Dr. Dana Kuhl Dr. med. Lilli Kuhlwilm Dr. med. Susanne Kühne Aleksandra Kulberg Dr. Julia Kunz Oliver Legrand Florian Lehner Saskia Lehrmann Hannes Leubner Dr. Roland Lichem Theresa Lichtenberg Dr. Henning Lichtenstein Dr. med. Ana Luiza Lima Julia Limmer Dr. Theresa Linke Dr. Tobias Lipek Daniela Eileen Lippoldt Katharina Lister Linda Löbelenz Dr. med. Franziska Löffel Anna Lohbeck Dr. med. Gustav Lohse Cert. med. Rahel Looser Johannes Lörner Dr. med. Laine Ludriksone Prof. Dr. Ralf Ludwig Dr. med. Sollfrank Lukas Felix Lukassen Dr. med. Jeton Luzha Dr. Pamela Mai Pawel Majenka Dr. Renz Mang Dr. med. Claus Meisel Dr. Stefanie Melhorn Gianluca Menghini Tizian Meyer Bettina Meyer-Schmidtke Dr. med. Katrin Mihalics Paula Möbius Dr. med. hans-werner momberger Nadja Morello Christoph Müller Dr. med. Fabian Müller Marcel Müller MSc Cornelia Müller-Richter Maria Murmann Pia Nagel Dr. med. Nima Nasserani Dr. Jenny-Lou Navarra Angelika Németh Vardan Nersisyan Susanne Neumann Pauline Nibbe Dr. med. Christina Niederstadt Waldemar Nold Dr. med. Julia Oberheim Ann-Kathrin Oehus Hajo Oldenbruch Iga Olejarczyk Dr. med. Christian Orasche Dr. med. Sebastian Osowski Ayça Özdemir Dr. med. Cornelia Paul Dr. med. Gerret Paulsen Dr. med. Simone Pecher Duygu Percin Dr. Ilaria Perrone Dr. Leonard Perschy Andreas Peter Anna Franziska Peters Dr. med. Ann-Cathrin Petrich Antonia Pfadenhauer Dr. Susanna Pfitzner Cert. ing. Bernhard Pitzal Dr. med. Antje Polensky Dr. Panagiotis Polyzois Dr. med. Margarita Pongratz Sietske Poortinga Alexander Popp Anna Pothmann Regina Poulheim Lea-Isabell Präger Jennifer Prause Philipp Proksch Tim Pütz Dr. med. Mohammad Rahbari Dr. guillermo ramirez fernandez Jan Ramming Prof. Dr. Stefanie Reich-Schupke Anna Reidenbach Dr. med. Raphael Reinhard Dr. med. Raphael Reinhard Karl Reinhard Manuel Reinhart Timon Renggli Simon Reuter Roxana Rezazadegan Dr. med. Nathalie Ritter Fabio Rittinghaus Nadine-Marie Röckl Dr. Joachim Roewer Dr. Max Rogatsch Anna Rogge Christina Rohdenburg Christoph Rose Nicola Roushansarai Dr. med. Philipp Rudolphi Theresa Ruf Jonas Rüth Beate Saal Fabian Sautter Eva Marie Scharnowski Dr. med. Nina Scheiba Wolfgang Schenk Anna Scherer Dr. med. Benjamin Schlag Nora Schlecht Paul Schlegel Thomas SCHLEUSSINGER Christiane Schmidt Linda Schmitt Michael Scholand Jeanette Schönfeld Dr. med. Margarete Schröder Annabel Schroer Dr. med. Christian Schuster Pascal Schwarz Dr. med. Beate Schwarz Samuel Schwimmer Aylin Sezer Shaylin Shahinzad Sogol Shakibania Dr. Zenab Shmayyes Damian Specker Dr. Christina Spiegelfeld Joachim Spies Marco Sprung Jochen Starke Robin Stegemann Severin Steinegger Dr. Tim Steiner Dr. med. Rainer Stengel Mario Stix Gulmira Stoll Oliver Storz Dr. med. Natalia Straub Birte Stroucken Julia Strunk Philipp Stüven Dr. med. Lia Sun Dr. med. Hossein Taghizadeh Ramona Tasar Warang Thaipreecha Dr. Thomas Thiele Dr. Markus Thieme Dr. med. Christian Tigges Dr. med. Wolfgang Tomandl Helene Tonner Dr. med. Thomas Trafoier Dr. med. Stephan Traidl Hadrian Tran Dr. med. Silke Tremper Ioannis Tsikakis Dr. med. Johannes Uerscheln Mario Urbanek Dr. med. Markus Voglau Dr. med. Gerrit vom Brocke Dr. med. Igor Vujic Maya Walper Jule Warncke Sarah Wecker Alexander Wegenast Ulrich Wehry Prof. Dr. Michael Weichenthal Dr. med. Florian Weid Till Weidner Nico Weinkauf Sebastian Weißflog Franziska Welke Daniel Wenk Manuel Weyrauch Dr. med. Christine Wieland christian willig Dr. med. Christian Martin Winter Jannik Winter Assoc. Prof. Miriam Wittmann Tom Wohlfarth Gina Wünsch Seymanur Yildirim Dr. Ruo-Xi Yu Alexandros Zarotis Wolfgang Zerbe Max Zhao Dr. David Zimmermann Dr. Nicole Zimmermann Julia Zlotkowski Dr. Alexander Zumdick