DefinitionThis section has been translated automatically.
Flat, spherical or pointed conical efflorescence protruding above the skin, up to 1.0 cm in diameter (larger raised efflorescences are called plaque or nodules ) Efflorescence of different colour, consistency and configuration. Their consistency ranges from soft, firm to hard (e.g. calcinosis cutis). Their surface can be smooth, rough or scaly. In a cutting pattern, papules appear as flat, flat-oval, hemispherical or pointed conical prominences.
General informationThis section has been translated automatically.
DiagnosisThis section has been translated automatically.
- Number and distribution (solitary, multiple, grouped, disseminated, exanthematic)
- Arrangement and shape (gyriated, herpetiform, serpiginous, in Blaschko lines, segmental, anular, polygonal, reticular
- Structural and functional assignment (follicular, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, contact points or defined by exogenous triggers (e.g. contact point, heliotropic, random, textile covered)
- Topographic classification (different body regions, field skin, groin skin, face, nose, auricle, capillitium, intertriginous)
- Boundary (sharp-edged, blurred, arched, jagged, random)
- Colour (dull red, light red, deep red, haemorrhagic, transition to purpura, blue-red)
- Temperature (hypo-, normo-, hypertherm)
- consistency (unchanged, slightly to moderately increased [palpable erythema]/ transition to papule)
- Symptoms (mild itching, severe itching, burning itch, pain)
- association with fever and/or other general symptoms (arthralgias, intestinal symptoms, fatigue)
- association with metabolic diseases, pregnancy, malignant tumours, autoimmune diseases
- dynamics (static, acutely volatile, acutely persistent, chronically persistent, crescendo reaction with increasing dynamics, wave dynamics, with increasing phase-plateau phase and decrescendophase)
- Triggering: Exogenous Triggering: Physical: cold, heat, pressure, UV, light), biochemical (exertion; water; irritants), allergic (contact allergens)
- Triggering: Endogenous triggering: bacterial, viral, fungal infections, ADRs (drug reactions), food allergies.
LiteratureThis section has been translated automatically.
- Altmeyer P (2007) Dermatological differential diagnosis. The way to clinical diagnosis. Springer Medicine Publishing House, Heidelberg
- Nast A, Griffiths CE, Hay R, Sterry W, Bolognia JL. The 2016 International League of Dermatological Societies' revised glossary for the description of cutaneous lesions. Br J Dermatol. 174:1351-1358.
Ochsendorf F et al (2017) Examination procedure and theory of efflorescence. Dermatologist 68: 229-242