DefinitionThis section has been translated automatically.
General informationThis section has been translated automatically.
Cannabinoids are transformation products and synthetic analogues of some terpene phenols (partially hydrogenated dibenzfuran derivatives) found mainly in the hemp plant(Cannabis sativa or Cannabis indica).
Phytocannabinoids: The hemp plant C. sativa contains > 110 natural phytocannabinoids from the group of terpene phenols , which have not yet been discovered in any other plant. The cannabinoids listed below are the best studied phytocannabinoids:
- Delta 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol: The best pharmacologically and clinically studied, highly psychotropic main active ingredient of Cannabis sativa is Delta 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC=dronabinol).
- Cannabidiol: In terms of quantity, cannabidiol is in 2nd place. Cannabidiol has antiphlogistic, anti-schizophrenic and anti-epileptic effects but not psychotropic.
- Cannabinol: A third well-studied substance is cannabinol.
- Cannabidivarin (CBDV): antiepileptic effect; ligand of TRPV1- as well as TRPV2.
Cannabigerol(CBGV): affinity for CB1 receptors
Other phytocannabinoids (not derived from the cannabis plant):
- Other plants were also shown to produce diverse phytocannabinoids. For example, N-isobutylamides prepared from Echinacea were found to be potent cannabinoid mimetics.
- These are endogenous substances with similar pharmacological properties to external cannabinoids (phytocannabinoids).
- these have become an increasingly common drug of abuse, sold under various street names such as K2, Spice and Black Mamba.
The effects of cannabinoids comes from binding and activating cannabinoid receptors (CB receptors). For example, THC is a potent agonist of the CB1 receptor, which mediates the psychotropic effects and activation of the reward pathways. Furthermore, CBD and CBDV activate both TRPV1 and TRPV2 (so-called capsaicin receptors) and TRPA1 channels in a dose-dependent manner.
The following cannabinoid receptors are known to date:
- CB1 receptors: These occur mainly in the CNS, but also in the periphery such as gastrointestinal tract, fat cells, postganglionic neurons of the autonomic nervous system. Their activation acts Gi/o-mediated inhibition of adenylcylcase, opening of K+ channels and closure of neuronal Ca2+ channels. CB1 receptors also appear to play a role in the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism.
- CB2 receptors: CB2 receptors are found mainly on immunocompetent cells of the hematopoietic system, in the intestine, and on osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Their activation is also Gi/o-mediated.
- GPR18, GPR119 and GPR55 receptors: These G protein-coupled receptors (GPR) act as cannabinoid receptors in the endocannabinoid system . They mediate a wide range of biochemical reactions.
Endogenous ligands of CB receptors(endocannabinoids) are the arachidonic acid derivatives anandamide and 2-arachidonylglacerol. Little is known about their physiological significance.
Other ligands of CB receptors: A new class of potent cannabinoid mimetics are the N-isobutylamides, which are prepared from Echinacea. These bind to the peripheral CB2 cannabinoid receptors on immune cells but not to the CB1 receptors in the central nervous system.
Yangonin from the kava plant (Piper methysticum) and various catechins from the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) also act on CB1 receptors.
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PathophysiologyThis section has been translated automatically.
Research into cannabinoids led to the discovery of the endocannabinoid system.
- Psychotropic (already in dosages of 5-10mg Delta9 -THC ).
- Euphoric (very strong effect when smoking hashish)
- Muscle relaxant (e.g. in MS patients)
- Appetite stimulant
Cannabinoids lead to
- Disturbances of the optical/acoustic sensory perception
In higher doses they cause psychosis-like states (hallucinations, thought disorders, disorders of the sense of time and space, impairment of cognitive functions).
Degradation: THC is metabolized mainly in the liver (HWZ=50h). During this process, active metabolites such as 11-hydroxy-THC are formed. THC and its metabolites are very lipophilic and have very large distribution areas, from which they are eliminated only very slowly via the stool (70%) and urine 30%. Therefore, they can be detected in the excrements even a long time after their consumption, which can be of great importance forensically.
Note(s)This section has been translated automatically.
Cannabinoids are on the doping list!
Marijuna contains about 5% THC.
Hash contains 5-15% THC, depending on variety and origin.
The expression of cannabinoid receptors in human skin has been proven. This knowledge has already been used in studies for the treatment ofchronic pruritus (available preparation = Physiogel AI cream).
LiteratureThis section has been translated automatically.
Korte, G et al. (2010) Tea catechins' affinity for human cannabinoid receptors. Phytomedicine 17: 19-22
- Ständer S et al. (2005) Distribution of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2) on sensory nerve fibers and adnexal structures in human skin. J Dermatol Sci 38: 177-188