HistoryThis section has been translated automatically.
Bourns in 1899; Brocq in 1894;
DefinitionThis section has been translated automatically.
Localized, spotty or plaque shaped, also bullous or erosive drug reaction,
- which occurs in a temporal connection with the intake of drugs (triggering drugs see table) in therapeutic doses
- is limited to a solitary stove or a few stoves
- tends to recur in situ (recurrence in loco).
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EtiopathogenesisThis section has been translated automatically.
The immunopathogenetic mechanism of the fixed drug reaction has not yet been clarified (see also under erythema exsudativum multiforme). The central role is played by CD8+ T cells which show a phenotype similar to the effector memory T cell and are mainly responsible for the epidermal damage. CD8+ positive cells persist for years in old, already clinically healed lesions(tissue-resident memory cells) and can be expressed and activated on keratinocytes after renewed exposure to the agent via a probably TNF-alpha induced upregulation of ICAM-1 (see below adhesion molecules) (see also UV reactivation reaction). The release of interferon gamma leads to an inflammatory reaction.
Of note is the role of viral infections (e.g., herpes simplex infections) as co-factors for the "recurrence" of the fixed drug response. A so-called recall reactivation reaction can be assumed for the recurrent "in-loco occurrence", although the immunological processes for this are also still unclear (see also under UV reactivation reaction).
ManifestationThis section has been translated automatically.
Occurrence 1-2 weeks after (first) use of the drug. With repeated ingestion, occurrence within 30 min. up to 24 hours possible. The relationship between drug intake and the appearance of the lesions is not always clear.
Occurrence possible in all age groups. Predominance between 20-60 years (average in larger studies at 36-53J). No gender predilection.
LocalizationThis section has been translated automatically.
Ubiquitous occurrence is possible.
Preference is given to the upper extremity (about 50%), followed by the lower extremity, lips, face, penis, vulva; involvement of the oral mucosa can occur very incisively (cheek mucosa, gingiva, hard and soft palate). The mucosa of the glans penis and vulva are also typical (often unrecognized) sites of manifestation.
Clinical featuresThis section has been translated automatically.
Solitary or restricted to a few foci, 2.0-5.0 cm large (more rarely up to 10 cm large plaques), round or oval (rarely also anular), initially deep red, later blue to brown-red, after healing brown (post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation), sharply defined, succulent, itchy or even slightly painful spots or plaques. Blistery transformation in the centre is possible. In the case of intertriginous infestation, diagnosis can be made more difficult because the characteristic clinical morphology is overlaid by local factors. Clinically impressive is then a (large) area erosion.
The generalised, possibly multilocular, bullous fixed drug reaction (GBFDE) is described as themaximum variant , which can occur in adults as well as in children.
An extreme intertriginous variant is the so-called " Baboon syndrome".
Upon re-exposure, the lesions reappear within 24 hours at exactly the same site. However, a refractory period can occur immediately after healing of the lesion.
A distinction must be made:
- Classical fixed drug response: Most common form which heals by long-term persistent post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation.
- Non-pigmented variant of the fixed drug reaction: Rarer form; generally occurs over a larger area (up to 10 cm in size) and heals without post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation.
- Urticarial fixed drug reaction: Rare variant which recurs urticarially and in loco when provoked.
- Neutrophilic fixed drug reaction: Extremely rare variant which histologically presents as neutrophilic dermatitis. Only few case reports have been published so far.
HistologyThis section has been translated automatically.
DiagnosisThis section has been translated automatically.
Clinical picture with recurrence in loco.
Note: Eye drops should also be considered during medical history!
The results of prick-scratch tests are evaluated differently. They are performed in loco in healed lesions. In individual studies (e.g. for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), reliable positive results of 40% are reported (Andrade 2011).
Oral provocation with the drug in question is the proof.
TherapyThis section has been translated automatically.
Internal therapyThis section has been translated automatically.
In case of corresponding severity of the clinical picture: systemic glucocorticoids in medium dosages, e.g. 60-80 mg prednisolone equivalent per day p.o. (e.g. Decortin ®).
Progression/forecastThis section has been translated automatically.
In larger collectives an average of 2.6 recurrences (1-10 recurrences) were anamnestized.
TablesThis section has been translated automatically.
Acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic acid, ibuprofen, indometacin, naproxen, phenazone derivatives, paracetamol, sulindac
carbamazepine, lorazepam, lormetazepam (noctamide), oxazepam, temazepam
Antihistamines (H1 blockers)
Cetirizine, dimenhydrinate, hydroxyzin hydrochloride (Atarax), loratadine
Antimicrobially active substances
amoxycillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, fluconazole, ketoconazole, metronidazole, minocycline, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, penicillin, rifampicin, terbinafine, tetracyclines, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, vancomycin
Aciclovir, allopurinol, atenolol, barbiturates, BCG vaccine, benzodiazepines, chloroquine, clioquinol, dapsone, foscarnet, dextromethorphan, diflunisal, dimenhydrinate (Volon A), docetaxel, influenza vaccine, heparin, interferon-ribavirin combinations, interleukin-2, iopamidol (contrast medium), Kakkon-To (Japanese medicinal plant), lactose (z.B. in botulinum preparations), magnesium, omeprazole, oral contraceptives, melatonin, metamizole, ondansetron (Zofran), paclitaxel, pyrimethamine sulfadoxins (fansidar), quinolones, sulfasalazine, sulfaguanidine, ticlopidine, tolmetin, tosufloxacintosilate, triamcinolone, tropisetron, tropotecan (hydrogenzamtin)
betahistine (antiemetic), cimetidine, ephedra heba ("ma huang"), ephedrine, paracetamol, piroxicam, pseudoephedrine, tetrahydrozoline, triamcinolone acetonide
Case report(s)This section has been translated automatically.
Medical history: A 67-year-old patient reported a treatment with Terbinafine because of a therapy-resistant onychomycosis. 2 hours after taking the 1st tablet he had noticed strongly itchy wheals on the inner side of the right upper arm. The treatment was then discontinued. The symptoms had receded.
Diagnosis: Epicutaneous and prick tests with Terbinafine o.B. When provoking the drug orally (125 mg Terbinafine) the patient developed an itchy wheal field of 6x6 cm on the inner side of the right upper arm within 3 hours. Testing was discontinued; the patient received symptomatic therapy with prednisolone and clemastine. Below this the symptoms improved within a few hours.
Diagnosis: Fixed (urticarial) drug reaction.
LiteratureThis section has been translated automatically.
- Agnew KL, Oliver GF (2001) Neutrophilic fixed drug eruption. Australas J Dermatol 42: 200-202
- Al Aboud K et al (2003) Fixed drug eruption to ibuprofen in daughter and father. J Drugs Dermatol 2: 658-659
- Andrade P et al (2011) Patch testing in fixed drug eruptions--a20-year review. Contact Dermatitis 65:195-201.
- Bourns DCG (1889) Unusual effects of antipyrine. Br Med J 2: 218-220
- Brocq L (1894) Eruption érythémateuse fixe a l`antipyrine. Ann Dermatol Vénéréol 5: 308-313
- Flowers H et al (2014) Fixed drug eruptions: presentation, diagnosis, and management. South Med J 107:724-727.
- Gilmore E et al (2004) Extensive fixed drug eruption secondary to vancomycin. Pediatric Dermatology 21: 600-602
- Hayashi H et al (2003) Multiple fixed drug eruption caused by acetaminophen. Clin Exp Dermatol 28: 455-456
- Handisuraya A et al (2011) Fixed drug eruption to mefenamic acid: a case series and diagnostic algorithms. JDDG 9: 374 - 378
- Hoetzenecker W et al.m(2016) Adverse cutaneous drug eruptions: current understanding. Semin Immunopathol 38:75-86.
- Jung JW et al (2014) Clinical features of fixed drug eruption at a tertiary hospital in Korea. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res 6:415-420.
- Kleinhans M et al (2004) Fixed drug eruption caused by articain. Allergy 59: 117
- Kornmehl H et al (2018) Generalized fixed drug eruption to piperacillin/tazobactam and review ofliterature
.Dermatol Online J 24. pii: 13030/qt8cr714g5.
Lee SS et al (2011) Maximal points of head's zone in fixed drug eruption. Ann Dermatol 23(Suppl 3):S383-386.
- Pionetti CH et al (2003) Fixed drug eruption due to loratadine. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 31: 291-293.
- Rödiger C et al. (2011) Fixed urticarial drug eruption? Abstract CD 46 DDG Conference: P02/07
- Sehgal VN et al (2003) Bullous fixed drug eruption (BFDE) following per-oral metronidazole. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 17: 607-609
- Shiohara T et al.(2015) Crucial Role of Viral Reactivation in the Development of Severe Drug Eruptions: a Comprehensive Review. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 49:192-202.
- Sidhu-Malik NK et al (2003) Multiple fixed drug eruption with interferon/ribavirin combination therapy for hepatitis C virus infection. J Drugs Dermatol 2: 570-573
- Tan C et al (2010) Anular fixed drug reaction. JDDG 8: 823-825
- Vester K et al (2011) Fixed drug exanthema due to flupirtine. Abstract CD 46th DDG meeting:P02/21.
Incoming links (27)Apoptosis; Balanitis medicamentosa toxicodermica; Calcium antagonists, side effects; Cheilitis plasmacellularis; Drug exanthema fixed toxic; Drug reaction fixed generalized bullous; Dyskeratosis; Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis; Erysipeloid; Erythema; ... Show all
Outgoing links (36)Aciclovir; Adhesion molecules; Allopurinol; Amoxicillin; Antihistamines, systemic; Apoptosis; Barbiturates; Cd classification; Celecoxib; Ciprofloxacin; ... Show all
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