Cowden syndrome Q87.86

Author: Prof. Dr. med. Peter Altmeyer

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Last updated on: 29.10.2020

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Synonym(s)

Cowden M.; Cowden's syndrome; Hamartoma Syndrome; Hamartoma tumor syndrome; Hamartome multiple; M. Cowden; multiple hamartomas; Multiple Hamartoma Syndrome; Multiple hamartoma syndromes; OMIM 158350

History
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Dennis & Lloyd, 1963

Definition
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Autosomal-dominantly inherited genodermatosis ( PTEN-Hamartoma-Tumor-Syndrome/ PTEN= phosphatase and tensin homologue) with pathognomic mucocutaneous changes like:

  • facial tricholemmas
  • oral papillomatosis
  • acral keratoses
  • Hamarous tumours of the mamma and thyroid gland
  • Polyps in the gastrointestinal tract.

The main diagnostic criteria include thyroid carcinomas, breast and endometrial carcinomas, dysplastic gangliocytoma of the cerebellum and macrocephaly(Lhermitte-Duclos syndrome).

Occurrence/Epidemiology
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Rare; prevalence 1/200,000 inhabitants.

Etiopathogenesis
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mutations of the PTEN1 tumor suppressor gene (phosphatase and tensin homolog gene) mapped on gene locus 10q23.3 with consecutive suppression of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTEN), a protein that physiologically supports the onset of cell death. Suppression of PTEN protein thus stimulates cell proliferation and hamartose growth.

Related syndromes in which PTEN germline mutations have also been found are Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome and Proteus syndrome.

Manifestation
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Mostly in the third or fourth decade of life. Women are affected in a ratio of 3:2 compared to men.

Clinical features
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Main dermatological symptoms: Papular, centrofacial and acral lesions. Perioriferal and acral lentigines, pronounced papillomatosis of the oral mucosa and intestinal tract. Tricholemmomas, trichoepitheliomas of the face. More frequent lipomas, hemangiomas and vitiligo.

Extracutaneous manifestations: avian face, microstomy, hypoplasia of the upper and lower jaw, narrow nose, antimongoloid eyelid axis. Lingua plicata, tooth position anomalies. Multiple cysts in hyperplastic mammae, liver, thyroid gland and bones.

Histology
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Papilloma, tricholemmoma.

Differential diagnosis
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Therapy
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Excision or electrocaustic ablation of cosmetically disturbing or suspicious malformations, monitoring and rehabilitation of carcinomas.

Progression/forecast
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High correlation with malignant tumors, especially breast and thyroid carcinomas.

Literature
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  1. Bruce H et al (2009) Cutaneous manifestations of internal malignancy. Cancer J Clin 59: 73-98
  2. Canadas LMC et al (2006) Multiple oral fibropapillomatosis as an initial manifestation of Cowden syndrome. Case report. Oral Medicine and Pathology 11: 319-324
  3. Fistarol SK et al (2002) Cowden disease or multiple hamartoma syndrome--cutaneous clue to internal malignancy. Eur J Dermatol 12: 411-421
  4. Fritsch P et al (1981) The multiple hamartoma syndrome (Cowden syndrome). Dermatologist 32: 285-291
  5. Happle R et al (2002) Radiation-induced cutaneous hamartoma in a patient with Cowden syndrome. Clinical evidence for heterozygosity. dermatologist 53: 47-49
  6. Lloyd KM, Dennis M (1963) Cowden's disease: A possible new symptom complex with multiple systemic involvement. Ann Internal Med 58: l36-142
  7. Schaller J et al (2003) Identification of human papillomavirus DNA in cutaneous lesions of Cowden syndrome. Dermatology 207: 134-140
  8. Vega A et al (2003) A Novel Loss-of-Function Mutation (N48K) in the PTEN genes in a Spanish patient with Cowden Disease. J Invest Dermatol 121: 1356-1359

Disclaimer

Please ask your physician for a reliable diagnosis. This website is only meant as a reference.

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Last updated on: 29.10.2020