HistoryThis section has been translated automatically.
DefinitionThis section has been translated automatically.
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PathogenThis section has been translated automatically.
β-hemolytic Lancefield Group A Streptococci (over 80 different serotypes, type-specific immunity).
EtiopathogenesisThis section has been translated automatically.
Droplet infection. Transmission, also via a contact person or food, is possible. Ports of entry: tonsils, nasopharynx, also wounds.
Streptococcal infections are primarily localized infections. In principle, they do not leave antibacterial immunity. Immunity is produced in scarlet fever only against one of the pyrogenic erythrogenic toxins (there are 4 different toxins that lead to type-specific immunity). This erythrogenic toxin can only be produced if streptococci carry bacteriophages (also called prophages) in their genome that code for it. Specific immunity is directed exclusively against the toxin formed. If an infection by beta-hemolytic streptococci occurs (predominantly angina tonsillaris, only in rare cases by a soft tissue infection = scarlet fever), the classic picture of scarlet fever develops in the absence of immunity against scarlet toxins. If immunity is already present, only streptococcal angina will develop. Since there are several different toxins, multiple scarlet fever reinfections (up to 4) are possible. Erythrogenic toxins belong to the so-called superantigens, which are able to lead to fulminant T-cell proliferation with broad cytokine production without specific antigen processing.
In very rare cases, scarlet fever induced by staphylococcal enterotoxins occurs predominantly in children.
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- General: Incubation period 2-5 days.
- Sudden, highly acute onset with high fever, headache and sore throat, tachycardia, vomiting.
- Pharyngitis, angina tonsillaris, swelling of the cervical lymph nodes. Rare splenomegaly.
- Skin lesions (day 2-3): Exanthema, possibly delayed by days. Usually begins in the groin, the thigh triangle or the flexion sides of the arms. Also head, neck, trunk, extremities. The face often shows a butterfly-like distributed redness. Characteristic is a perioral non-binding zone (Facies scarlatinosa).
- Otherwise there are pale, later red, slightly raised, densely packed papules the size of a pinhead (see also Miliaria scarlatinosa).
- Often reduced capillary resistance. The Rumpel-Leede test is positive. In severe cases, flat hemorrhages may occur.
- Mucous membrane changes (day 3): spotty enanthema on the soft palate. Removal of the coating of the tongue (the entire surface of the tongue appears homogeneously red, free of coating in the case of swollen papillae = raspberry tongue).
- Subicterus may be present.
- Decay phase (day 5-7): The exanthema and angina tonsillaris, which have meanwhile flaked and itched, subside with lytic temperature reduction. Scaling: ragged (corneolytic - as after sunburn - scales can be peeled off the skin as a fine translucent film) flaking of the skin on the auricles, face, trunk and extremities. Coarse lamellar desquamation of palmae and plantae.
- After 2-3 months telogenic effluvium, possible formation of transverse furrows of the nails(Beau-Reilsche-cross furrows) of the nails.
LaboratoryThis section has been translated automatically.
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Differential diagnosisThis section has been translated automatically.
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TherapyThis section has been translated automatically.
- Penicillin: Penicillin V (e.g. isocillin) 3 times/day 0,4-1,2 million IU p.o. (infants: 0.2-0.6 million IU/day) over at least 10 days. If reliable intake is not guaranteed, benzathine-penicillin (e.g. tardocillin) once 0.6 million IU or 1.2 million IU i.m. In case of severe course or complications Penicillin G (e.g. Penicillin Grünenthal) 10-20 million IU/day i.v.
- For penicillin allergy: erythromycin (e.g. erythrocin) 3 times/day 500 mg p.o. (children 40 mg/kg bw/day) or clindamycin (e.g. sobelin) 4 times/day 150-450 mg p.o. Alternatively cephalosporins like cefadroxil (e.g. cedrox) 1 time / day 2 g or cefuroxime (e.g. Elobact) 2 times/day 250 mg p.o. for at least 10 days.
Notice! Co-treatment of other children living in the household is recommended due to possible serious complications (endocarditis, glomerulonephritis, minor chorea, rheumatic fever)!
Progression/forecastThis section has been translated automatically.
- In the presence of a type-specific antibacterial immunity: No clinical disease after streptococcal contact, independent of the presence of antitoxic antibodies.
- In the absence of type-specific antibacterial immunity and the presence of antitoxic antibodies: Streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis following contact with streptococci.
- In the absence of the typical specific antibacterial immunity and antitoxic antibodies: angina, streptococcal angina and scarlet fever after streptococcal contact.
LiteratureThis section has been translated automatically.
- Hedrick J (2003) Acute bacterial skin infections in pediatric medicine: current issues in presentation and treatment. Paediatr Drugs 5(Suppl 1): 35-46Mun
SJ et al (2019) Staphylococcal scarlet fever associated with staphylococcal enterotoxin M in anelderly
patient. Int J Infect Dis 85:7-9.
- Sydenham T (1676) Observationes medicae circa morborum acutorum historiam et curationem. Londini, G. Kettilby, p. 387
Incoming links (28)Aphthoid pospischill-feyrter; Azidocilline; Canker rash; Dermatitis-arthritis syndromes; Dick test; Enanthem; Eosinophilia skin changes; Erythema infectiosum; Erythema, nodular; Erythema scarlatiniforme desquamativum recidivans; ... Show all
Outgoing links (28)Adverse drug reactions of the skin; Angina, streptococcal angina; Beau-reilsche cross furrows of the nails; Cefadroxil; Cefuroxime; Cephalosporins; Clindamycin; Dick test; Enanthem; Erythromycin; ... Show all
Please ask your physician for a reliable diagnosis. This website is only meant as a reference.