Nail diseases (overview) L60.8

Author: Prof. Dr. med. Peter Altmeyer

All authors of this article

Last updated on: 24.04.2021

Dieser Artikel auf Deutsch

Synonym(s)

Diseases of the nail organ; Diseases of the nails

Definition
This section has been translated automatically.

Change of the nail plate(s) in the context of integumentary or general (systemic) diseases occurring or as an independent entity limited to the nail organ. See also the respective clinical picture. S.a. Nail care.

Classification
This section has been translated automatically.

Onychodystrophies (changes in the nail plate).

  • Longitudinal grooves (special form: dystrophia mediana canaliformis); frequent growth disorder of the nails, also due to age. Can lead to triangular tears and splitting at the free edge of the nail.
  • Transverse grooves(Beau-Reilsche transverse grooves of the nails)
  • Onychauxis (thickening of the nail with preserved transparency)
  • Leukonychia punctata
  • Leukonychia linearis
  • Lunulae triangulares (triangular lunulae e.g. in nail-patella syndrome)
  • Onychisis (lamellar splitting of the nail in longitudinal and transverse direction, see below. Onychorrhexis)
  • Onycholysis (detachment of the nail plate - causes see there)
  • Atrophy of the nail plate up to anonychia (often with pterygium formation)
  • Soft, brittle nails (iron deficiency anaemia, vitamin A overdose)
  • Onychorrhexis (hard, thickened and splintering nails)
  • Pachyonychia congenita
  • tubular nail (unguius in turricolo)
  • Clock glass nails(see also macroonychia)

Nail signs due to diseases of the nail bed

Diseases of the peri-paro- and epinychium

  • Bulla repens
  • Fibrokeratoma digital acquired
  • Paronychia in dyskeratosis congenita (rare)
  • Paronychia, bacterial
  • Paronychia candidamycetica
  • Paronychia, syphilitic (vesicular or pustular skin lesions affecting the paronychium and nail detachment in syphilis connata)
  • Hyperkeratotic nail fold (in dermatomyositis and progressive systemic scleroderma)
  • Megacapillaries in dermatomyositis and progressive systemic scleroderma

Nail discolorations see below Chromonychia

Congenital and hereditary nail diseases (see also under"genetic non-syndromic nail anomalies")

Nail dystrophies in dermatological diseases

Nails in internal diseases

The aching nail (Definition: Common and non-specific symptom of many changes in the nail apparatus. Pressure pain of the nail or the nail wall are symptoms of different diseases).

Tumors of soft tissue and bone:

Vascular Causes:

Traumatic nail changes

  • Polishing or shiny nails (caused by continuous rubbing of the nails, e.g. in atopic eczema by scratching)
  • Traumatic onycholysis
  • Median nail dystrophy
  • Onychogrypose (big toe or 2nd toe in football players)
  • Subungual hematoma
  • Unguis incarnatus
  • Retronychia
  • Splinters and other foreign bodies
  • Chronic injuries of the nail matrix caused by sports shoes (due to frequent bumping of the toes)
  • Traumatic nail bruises due to dorsally or frontally applied pressure events.
  • Nail deformity in childhood

Nail tumours (periungual or subungual)

  • Granuloma pyogenicum
  • Periungual or subcutaneous warts
  • Fibromas, periungual (traumatic)
  • Juvenile fibromas
  • Koenen tumor in Pringle's disease
  • Subungual exostoses
  • Subungual osteochondroma
  • Glomus tumor
  • Melanocytic nevi
  • Bowen's disease
  • Verrucous carcinoma
  • Acrolentiginous malignant melanoma

Literature
This section has been translated automatically.

  1. Altmeyer P (2012) Dermatological differential diagnosis. Springer, Heidelberg, New York
  2. Daniel CR et al (1985) Nails in systemic disease. Dermatol Clin 3: 465-483
  3. Effendy I (2003) Nail changes during childhood. dermatologist 54: 41-44
  4. Helfand AE (2003) Assessing onychial disorders in the older patient. Clin Podiatry Med Surgery 20: 431-442
  5. Langnickel R (2002) The yellow-nail syndrome. Laryngorhinootology 81: 56-59

Disclaimer

Please ask your physician for a reliable diagnosis. This website is only meant as a reference.

Authors

Last updated on: 24.04.2021