Anonychia (overview) Q84.30

Author: Prof. Dr. med. Peter Altmeyer

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Last updated on: 10.12.2021

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Anonychia; Anonychosis; nail loss; Nail loss

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Complete or partial(microonychia, hyponychia, onychoatrophy), acquired or congenital "naillessness" on one or more finger(s) and/or on one or more toe(s).

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Acquired anonychia:

Congenital anonychia: A number of different syndromes have been described:

  • Anonychia congenita: In autosomal recessive congenital anonychia (OMIM 206800), congenital anonychia is the leading symptom (no hypoplasia of the bony terminal phalanges). Mutations in the RSPO4 gene, which codes for R-spondin 4, a component of the Wnt signalling pathway, are detectable.
  • In mammary finger-nail syndrome, nails are absent with hypoplasia or complete absence of the end phalanges.
  • In Cooks syndrome, nail dystrophy progresses to anonychia of the ring and little finger.Furthermore, there is digitization of the thumb.
  • In anonychia-ectrodactyly syndrome, the finger abnormalities are asymmetrical, including the absence of 1 or more fingers.
  • 20-nail dystrophy
  • Nail-patella syndrome (anonychia, hyponychia, onychoschisis, triangular lunula. Most affected are thumb and index finger nails; toenails are almost always normal).
  • Isolated anonychia-onycholysis (Nail disorder, nonsyndromic congenital 9: this is an autosomal recessive nail dystrophy. The nails appear normal at birth; in the first decade of life onycholysis of the toenails leading to anonychia).

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In the case of acquired anonymity: treatment of the underlying disease, see there.

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  1. Afsar FS et al (2014) Total congenital anonychia. Pediatric dermatol 31:743-744
  2. Babu S et al (2012) Anonychia due to prenatal phenytoin exposure. J Assoc Physicians India 60:64
  3. Balta I et al (2013) A case report on autosomal recessive total congenital anonychia. Pediatric Dermatol 30: e268-269
  4. de Lau WB et al (2012) The R-spondin protein family. Genomes Biol.13:242
  5. Lam C et al (2013) Images in clinical medicine. Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita. N Engl J Med 368:e17
  6. Khan TN et al (2012) Novel missense mutation in the RSPO4 gene in congenital hyponychia and evidence for a polymorphic initiation codon (p.M1I). BMC Med gene 13:120


Please ask your physician for a reliable diagnosis. This website is only meant as a reference.


Last updated on: 10.12.2021