DefinitionThis section has been translated automatically.
Macular, papular or nodular, skin-colored, yellow, brown, red or brown-red neoplasms caused by local storage of serum lipoproteins in macrophages of the skin and/or subcutaneous tissue, sometimes with underlying elevation of serum lipoproteins, but sometimes also occurring normlipemically. There are close pathogenetic relationships or overlaps to/with the (normlipemic) non-Langerhans cell histiocytoses (see under xanthogranulomas).
ClassificationThis section has been translated automatically.
Classification is based on clinical and laboratory criteria.
- plane xanthomas (e.g. xanthelasma)
- eruptive xanthomas (disseminated nodules)
- tendon xanthomas (deep-seated soft nodules)
- tuberous xanthomas.
Laboratory chemistry distinguishes:
- Hyperlipemic (hyperlipoproteinemia types I to V):
- Normolipemic (see under histiocytoses):
- Secondary xanthomatization in tumors and dermatoses:
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EtiopathogenesisThis section has been translated automatically.
HistologyThis section has been translated automatically.
Predominantly fat-storing macrophages (foam cells) and possibly foreign body giant cells and Toutonian giant cells. Later fibrosis, cholesterol granulomas.
TherapyThis section has been translated automatically.
LiteratureThis section has been translated automatically.
- Bayer-Garner IB et al (2003) The spectrum of cutaneous disease in multiple myeloma. J Am Acad Dermatol 48: 497-507.
- Bel S et al (2001) Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 45: 292-295.
- Broeshart JH (2003) Normolipemic plane xanthoma associated with adenocarcinoma and severe itch. J Am Acad Dermatol 49: 119-122.
- Caputo R et al (2002) Progressive histiocytosis: description of a case of slow-course non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Dermatology 205: 293-297
- Chang HY (2003) Eruptive xanthomas associated with olanzapine use. Arch Dermatol 139: 1045-1048
- Cohen YK et al (2015) Diffuse normolipemic plane xanthoma associated with monoclonal gammopathy. Dermatol Pract Concept 5:65-67.
- Heller R et al (2002) Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, a treatable metabolic disorder. Neurologist 73: 1160-1166.
- Hirata Y et al (2002) Low density lipoprotein oxidized in xanthoma tissue induces the formation and infiltration of foam cells. J Dermatol Sci 30: 248-255.
- Koyama S et al (2021) Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: molecular pathogenesis, clinical spectrum, diagnosis, and disease-modifying treatments. J Atheroscler Thromb 28: 905-925.
- Krishna VC et al (2016) Xanthoma disseminatum with extensive coebnerization associated with familial hypertriglyceridemia C. JAAD 2: 253-256.
- Muscardin LM et al (2003) Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma without periorbital lesions and without paraproteinaemia. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 17: 233-235.
- Naik NS (2001) Eruptive xanthomas. Dermatol Online J 7: 11
- Watermann DF et al (2001) Skin manifestations of Erdheim-Chester disease. Case report and review of the literature. Dermatol 52: 510-517
- Ochsendorf F (2020) Manifestations of internal diseases on the skin. Consilium Dermatologie live 2: 24-29
Incoming links (32)Addison, thomas; Adiposity skin changes; Alagille syndrome; Alcohol skin changes; Cholesterodermia; Contagious mollusc; Dermatofibroma; Dermatofibroma hemosiderin storing; Finger ankle pads real; Giant cell tumor tenosynovial; ... Show all
Outgoing links (38)ABCG5 gene; Alagille syndrome; Alcoholic fatty cirrhosis; Cholestasis; Cutaneous non hodgkin lymphomas; Dermatofibroma; Diabetes mellitus; Histiocytoses; Histiocytoses non-langerhans cell histiocytoses; Hypercholesterolemia familial autosomal dominant; ... Show all
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