HistoryThis section has been translated automatically.
DefinitionThis section has been translated automatically.
X-linked, rare lysosomal storage disease (see lysosome below) with deficiency of lysosomally localized alpha-galactosidase A, with neurologic, nephrologic, cardiac, and dermatologic (small papular angiomas in about 70% of patients) symptoms.
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Occurrence/EpidemiologyThis section has been translated automatically.
EtiopathogenesisThis section has been translated automatically.
X-linked recessive mutation of the alpha-galactosidase A gene (alpha GAL), which is mapped on gene locus Xq22 The consequence is a deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A and leads to an accumulation of glycosphingolipids, preferably globotriaosylceramides and galabiosylceramides, in the vascular endothelia, but also in other cells.
ManifestationThis section has been translated automatically.
LocalizationThis section has been translated automatically.
Umbilical region (leading symptom), gluten, scrotum, trunk, rarely extremities. Rare is an involvement of the oral mucosa and the conjunctiva.
Clinical featuresThis section has been translated automatically.
Integument (70% of pat.; angiokeratomas): Multiple, symmetrically distributed, 1-3 mm, purplish-red to blackish-blue, only partially hyperkeratotic papules. The expression may be very discrete or absent. Tufted branching of capillaries of the nail fold as a possible harbinger of angiokeratoma. Hypo- or anhidrosis, therefore temperature increase during physical exertion; increased sensitivity to sudden temperature change.
In the further course, ostensibly symptoms of vascular involvement, e.g., heart failure due to cardiovascular changes(hypertrophic cardiomyopathy due to glycolipid deposition in the myocardium; further in the mitral and aortic valves and in the coronary vessels), progressive renal failure, nephrogenic hypertension, and cerebral insults.
Ocular involvement: Vertebral subepithelial yellow-brown corneal opacities(cornea verticillata in 80% of cases), aneurysms of the retinal vessels, ampullary distension of the conjunctival veins.
Neurological symptoms: paresthesias, temperature-dependent pain crises of the extremities(acroparesthesias) that regress from the 30th LJ, headaches, TIA, pareses, cerebral hemorrhages.
Tinnitus, hearing loss
Progressive renal involvement: asymptomatic microproteinuria, especially in childhood; often progressive loss of renal function to terminal renal failure.
LaboratoryThis section has been translated automatically.
Determination of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in blood (norm: < 2.3ug/l) and urine.
Complementary: Determination of the α-galactosidase A activity in leukocytes, serum, tear fluid.
In hemicygotes no or significantly reduced enzyme activity; in heterozygous women possibly no or slight reduction of enzyme activity - nevertheless, clinical symptoms cannot be excluded!
Note: Women represent a genetic mosaic: in one part of the body cells the functional X chromosome is switched on, in another part it is switched off. Women also fall ill, but later with much less severe symptoms.
Note: There are also polymorphisms without disease value.
HistologyThis section has been translated automatically.
Differential diagnosisThis section has been translated automatically.
TherapyThis section has been translated automatically.
Enzyme replacement therapy: Agalsidase alpha (Replagal) 0.1 mg/kg bw over 40 minutes or Agalsidase beta (Fabrazyme) 1 mg/kg bw over 2-4 hours at regular (usually 14-day) intervals. Both preparations often cause at least a stagnation of the course of the disease, decrease of acroparaesthesia and improvement of the quality of life. Indications of improvement of heart and kidney insufficiency. Furthermore, symptomatic treatment of cardiovascular, pulmonary and muscular disorders.
Progression/forecastThis section has been translated automatically.
Untreated infaust. Lethal outcome between 30 and 50 years of age due to cardio- and renovascular complications (uremia or vascular insults). Under therapy probably significant improvement of the prognosis. With late-onset variants normal life expectancy.
Note(s)This section has been translated automatically.
Diagnosis often only in adulthood with progression of the clinical symptoms. In case of suspected disease interdisciplinary approach with molecular genetic analysis, histology, bone marrow biopsy, urine sediment (Maltese crosses: polarization microscopic birefringent ceramide crystals). Eye examination with slit lamp: subepithelial deposited glycosphingolipids.
Capillary microscopy: tufts of some capillaries in 2 to 5 loops and their elongation. Medium plexus visibility (plexus score 2 according to Maricq). Pathological capillaroscopy may be an indication of a systemic vascular change which may occur without lipid deposition in the endothelial cells. The changes are similar to those in systemic collagenosis.
Prenatal diagnosis: chorionic villus sampling in 10th-12th weeks or amnioscentesis in 15th-18th weeks.
LiteratureThis section has been translated automatically.
- Anderson W (1898) A case of angio-keratoma. Brit J Derm 10: 113-117
- Bengtsson BA et al (2003) Enzyme replacement in Anderson-Fabry disease. Lancet 361: 352
- Desnick RJ et al (2003) Fabry disease, an under-recognized multisystemic disorder: expert recommendations for diagnosis, management, and enzyme replacement therapy. Ann Intern Med 138: 338-346
- Fabry J (1898) A contribution to the knowledge of Purpura haemorrhagica nodularis (Purpura papulosa haemorrhagica Hebrae). Arch Derm Syphil (Berlin) 43: 187-200
- Frank J et al (1996) Angiokeratoma corporis diffusum universale (Fabry's disease). Dermatologist 47: 776-779
- Frustaci A et al (2001) Improvement in cardiac function in the cardiac variant of Fabry's disease with galactose-infusion therapy. N Engl J Med 345: 25-32
- Gahl WA (2001) New therapies for Fabry's disease. N Engl J Med 345: 55-57
- Gerbig A et al (1997) Capillary microscopy in angiokeratoma corporis diffusum. Dermatologist 48: 505.
- Laxmisha C et al (2003) Cutaneous variant of angiokeratoma corporis diffusum. Dermatol Online J 9:13
- Koch N et al (2015) Erythematous papules in a 26-year-old patient. Dermatologist 66: 868-880
- Mehta A (2009) Enzyme replacement therapy with agalsidase alfa in patients with Fabry`s disease. Lancet 374: 1986-1996
- Mohrenschlager M et al (2001) Skin manifestations of Fabry disease. JAMA 286: 1315
- Pastores GM, Thadhani R (2001) Enzyme-replacement therapy for Anderson-Fabry disease. Lancet 358: 601-603
- Peters FP et al (2001) Anderson-Fabry's disease: alpha-galactosidase deficiency. Lancet 357: 138-140
- Pieroni M et al (2003) Early detection of Fabry cardiomyopathy by tissue Doppler imaging. Circulation 107: 1978-1984
- Waldek S et al (2003) PR interval and the response to enzyme-replacement therapy for Fabry's disease. N Engl J Med 348: 1186-1187
Incoming links (38)Anderson-fabry disease; Anderson, william; Angiokeratoma corporis diffusum, idiopathic; Angiokeratoma universale; Angioma serpiginosum; Angioma serpiginosum; Aspartyl glucosaminuria; Beta-mannosidosis; Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome; Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome; ... Show all
Outgoing links (15)Acanthosis; Angiokeratomas (overview); Angioma; Cardiomyopathy hypertrophic; Collagenoses; Heart failure; Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia; Hypohidrosis; Lysosome; Mibelli's angiokeratoma; ... Show all
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