HistoryThis section has been translated automatically.
DefinitionThis section has been translated automatically.
Aetiopathogenetically unexplained, self-limiting exanthema that occurs in about 50% of mature newborns, typically on the 2nd day of life (not congenital).
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EtiopathogenesisThis section has been translated automatically.
Unexplained; mechanical or thermal stimuli are discussed. Various findings (expression of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37) suggest a microbial stimulus that has not yet been further defined.
ManifestationThis section has been translated automatically.
Occurs 12-48 hours after birth; in about 30-50% of mature newborns. Not in children under 2500 g. No gender affinity.
LocalizationThis section has been translated automatically.
Generalized, often beginning in the face, spreading to the trunk, buttocks and proximal extremities, recess of the palmae and plantae.
Clinical featuresThis section has been translated automatically.
12-48 hours after birth, 3-4 days of extremity exanthema with blurred, mostly washed-out erythema, on which about 0.05 to 0.1 cm large, non follicular papules or (sterile) pustules or blisters develop. No impairment of the general condition; no itching.
HistologyThis section has been translated automatically.
The cytological smear from pustules yields predominantly eosinophilic granulocytes.
Histologically there is eosinophilic dermatitis and folliculitis with subcorneal abscess formation. Furthermore: folliculitis and perifolliculitis with numerous eosinophilic leucocytes.
Differential diagnosisThis section has been translated automatically.
TherapyThis section has been translated automatically.
Progression/forecastThis section has been translated automatically.
Spontaneous healing usually within 7-10 days.
Note(s)This section has been translated automatically.
LiteratureThis section has been translated automatically.
- Fölster-Holst R, Höger P (2010) Pustular skin diseases of the newborn. JDDG 7: 569-579
- Hansen LP et al (1985) Erythema toxicum neonatorum with pustulation versus transient neonatal pustular melanosis. Dermatologist 36: 475-477
- Leiner C (1912) On dyspeptic exanthema and dermatitis of early infancy. F. Deuticke, Leipzig
- Marchini G (2002) The newborn infant is protected by an innate antimicrobial barrier: peptide antibiotics are present in the skin and vernix caseosa. Br J Dermatol 147: 1127-1134
- Marchini G et al (2001) Erythema toxicum neonatorum: an immunohistochemical analysis. Pediatr Dermatol 18: 177-187.
- Marchini G et al (2003) AQP1 and AQP3, psoriasin, and nitric oxide synthases 1-3 are inflammatory mediators in erythema toxicum neonatorum. Pediatr Dermatol 20: 377-384
- Mengesha YM et al (2002) Pustular skin disorders: diagnosis and treatment. Am J Clin Dermatol 3: 389-400.
- Nanda S (2002) Analytical study of pustular eruptions in neonates. Pediatr Dermatol 19: 210-215
- Roques E et al (2022) Erythema Toxicum. 2022 Mar 15. in: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing PMID: 29261957.
- Schwartz RA et al (1996) Erythema toxicum neonatorum. Cutis 58: 153-135
Incoming links (11)Eosinophilia and skin; Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis; Erythema neonatorum allergicum; Erythema, toxic of the newborn; Erythema toxicum neonatorum; Harlequin discoloration; Neonatal cephalic pustulose; Newborns, skin changes; Spongiosis; Transient neonatal pustular Melanosis; ... Show all
Outgoing links (8)Candidoses; Diaper dermatitis; Ll37; Miliaria; Pigment incontinence; Skabies; Syphilis connata; Transient neonatal pustular Melanosis;
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