DefinitionThis section has been translated automatically.
The AIM2 gene (AIM2 stands for "Absent In Melanoma 2") is a protein-coding gene located on chromosome 1q23.1-q23.2. AIM2 is a member of the IFI20X/IFI16 family. It plays a putative role in the control of cell proliferation. Interferon-gamma induces the expression of AIM2.
General informationThis section has been translated automatically.
The AIM2 protein is involved in the innate immune response by recognizing cytosolic double-stranded DNA and inducing caspase-1-activating inflammasome formation in macrophages (Woerner SM et al.2007; Tsuchiya K et al. 2010). The AIM2 protein is thought to undergo oligomerization after binding to DNA and associates with PYCARD, initiating recruitment of the caspase-1 precursor and processing of interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-18 (Hornung V et al. 2009).
AIM2 recognizes cytosolic dsDNA of viral and bacterial origin in a non-sequence-specific manner (Fernandes-Alnemri T et al. 2009). Also acts as a mediator of pyroptosis, necroptosis, and apoptosis(panoptosis) in response to bacterial infection. Furthermore, it can induce PYCARD-dependent, caspase-1-independent cell death involving caspase-8. AIM2 is active as a tumor suppressor and may act by suppressing NF-kappa-B transcriptional activity.
AIM2 is able to recognize perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a common form of PFAS, and trigger IL-1β secretion and pyroptosis. Mechanistically, PFOS activates the AIM2 inflammasome in a process that involves the release of mitochondrial DNA via the Ca2+-PKC-NF-κB/JNK-BAX/BAK axis (Wang LQ et al. 2022).
Clinical pictureThis section has been translated automatically.
Diseases associated with AIM2 include:
- renal infectious diseases.
LiteratureThis section has been translated automatically.
- Fernandes-Alnemri T et al. (2009) AIM2 activates the inflammasome and cell death in response to cytoplasmic DNA. Nature 458:509-513.
- Hornung V et al (2009) AIM2 recognizes cytosolic dsDNA and forms a caspase-1-activating inflammasome with ASC. Nature 458:514-518.
- Tsuchiya K et al (2010) Involvement of absent in melanoma 2 in inflammasome activation in macrophages infected with Listeria monocytogenes. J Immunol 185:1186-1195.
- Wang LQ et al (2022) Perfluoroalkyl substance pollutants activate the innate immune system through the AIM2 inflammasome. Nat Commun. 2021 May 18;12(1):2915. doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-23201-0. Erratum in: Nat Commun 13: 5667.
- Woerner SM et al.(2007) The putative tumor suppressor AIM2 is frequently affected by different genetic alterations in microsatellite unstable colon cancers. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 46:1080-1089.