Pemphigus foliaceus L10.2

Author: Prof. Dr. med. Peter Altmeyer

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Last updated on: 29.10.2020

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Synonym(s)

Cazenave's disease

History
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Cazenave, 1844

Definition
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(Minus-) variant of pemphigus vulgaris with high intraepidermal (subcorneal) continuity separation and thus very thin, volatile, easily tearing blister cover. In contrast to pemphigus vulgaris, there are always no mucous membrane changes in pemphigus foliaceus.

Classification
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A distinction is made between:

Occurrence/Epidemiology
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Incidence: 0.5-1/1 million inhabitants/year.

Etiopathogenesis
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Autoimmune disease with formation of autoantibodies against desmoglein 1. non-specific factors such as stress or sunlight have a provocative effect

Manifestation
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Mainly occurring between the ages of 30 and 60 (rarely possible in children).

Localization
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Face seborrheic zones, seborrheic zones on the trunk (front and back sweat gutter) and capillitium. No mucous membrane infestation!

Clinical features
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  • Initially described beginning mostly on the head (especially face) or in the area of the front or rear sweat channel (seborrhoeic zones). Flat red papules and plaques with leaf-like scaly crusts, hyperkeratotic scales, weeping, sticky and moist erosions and unpleasant foetor due to bacterial decomposition. Rarely, vesicles or pustules can be observed at the edges of the plaques. Sudden exacerbations with spread to erythroderma are possible (change of the typically localized disease into the generalized stage of pemphigus vulgaris).
  • The Nikolski phenomenon I is positive.
  • In contrast to vulgar pemphius and paraneoplastic pemphigus the oral mucosa remains free (explanation: only desmoglein-1-AK; desmoglein-1 is not expressed by mucosal epithelia).
  • Frequent are alopecia and painful paronychia.

Laboratory
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Pemphigus antibodies (desmoglein-1-AK) are not always detectable.

Histology
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Acantholytic blister formation in the upper stratum spinosum or stratum granulosum. Acanthosis, papillomatosis, hyperkeratosis or dyskeratotic changes are also present.

Remark: Regarding the special features of the biopsy technique see below. pemphigus vulgaris

Indirect immunofluorescence
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Pemphigus antibodies not always detectable.

Differential diagnosis
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Complication(s)
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Sepsis with secondary infection.

External therapy
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Consistent textile sun protection as well as the use of physical or chemical (e.g. Anthelios) sun protection agents with a high sun protection factor (SPF > 15). Disinfecting or anti-inflammatory or astringent bath additives with synthetic tanning agents (e.g. Tannolact, Tannosynt) are necessary for the treatment of secondary infections. Furthermore, application of medium-strength glucocorticoids like 0.1% triamcinolone cream, 0.25% deoximethasone ointment (e.g. Topisolon) or 0.25% prednicarbate cream (e.g. Dermatop). S.u. Pemphigus vulgaris.

Internal therapy
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In case of extensive infestation, immunosuppressive therapy with glucocorticoids such as prednisolone (e.g. Decortin H) initially 1.0-2.0 mg/kg bw/day p.o. in combination with azathioprine (e.g. Imurek) 1.0-1.5 mg/kg bw/day p.o. Reduction of the glucocorticoids to 2.5-10 mg/day according to clinical symptoms.

Progression/forecast
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Cheaper than pemphigus vulgaris. In adults chronic course. In children occasionally spontaneous healing.

Literature
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  1. Abreu Velez AM et al (2003) Detection of mercury and other undetermined materials in skin biopsies of endemic pemphigus foliaceus. At J Dermatopathol 25: 384-391
  2. Abreu-Velez AM (2003) Analyses of autoantigens in a new form of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in Colombia. J Am Acad Dermatol 49: 609-614
  3. Cazenave PL (1844) Pemphigus chronique, générale; forme rare de pemphigus foliacé; mort: autopsy; alteration du foie. Les Annales des maladies de la peau et de la syphilis. 18: 583-585
  4. Cummins DL et al (2003) Oral cyclophosphamide for treatment of pemphigus vulgaris and foliaceus. J Am Acad Dermatol 49: 276-280
  5. Hirsch R et al (2003) Neonatal pemphigus foliaceus. J Am Acad Dermatol 49: S187-189
  6. Jarzabek-Chorzelska M et al (2002) Immunopathological diagnosis of pemphigus foliaceus. Dermatology 205: 413-415
  7. Luther H, Kastner U, Altmeyer P (1999) Comment on the contribution by Alexander H. Enk and Jurgen Knop. "Adjuvant therapy of pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus with intravenous immunoglobulins". dermatologist 50: 372-374
  8. Schmidt E et al (2000) Pemphigus. Loss of desmosomal cell-cell contact. dermatologist 51: 309-318
  9. Schmidt E et al (2015) S2k guideline for the diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris/foliaceus and bullous pemphigoid. JDDG 13: 713-726
  10. Whittock NV et al (2003) Targeting of desmoglein 1 in inherited and acquired skin diseases. Clin Exp Dermatol 28: 410-415

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Please ask your physician for a reliable diagnosis. This website is only meant as a reference.

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Last updated on: 29.10.2020