HistoryThis section has been translated automatically.
DefinitionThis section has been translated automatically.
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PathogenThis section has been translated automatically.
Occurrence/EpidemiologyThis section has been translated automatically.
First description in Nigeria in 1969: one American missionary nurse fell ill and died, another fell ill and was treated in the USA; there the virus was sioled for the first time; named after the city where the nurse worked.
Endemic in West Africa: Nigeria, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Mali, Senegal, Burkina Faso, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Ivory Coast.
High regional infestation (up to 50% of the population).
In West Africa about 100,000-300,000 cases of Lassa fever annually, about 70% are subclinical.
Case Fatality Rate: 2-30% (especially pregnant women).
Lassa-related virus is the Mopeia virus in South Africa, Mozambique, Zimbabwe.
In Germany, only very few cases have become known since the first description.
EtiopathogenesisThis section has been translated automatically.
- Herd-shaped necroses in the liver, adrenal glands, spleen.
- Generalized, virally suspected endothelial and platelet dysfunction.
Clinical featuresThis section has been translated automatically.
incubation period: 8-10 days. Insidious, uncharacteristic picture.
1st-2nd week of illness: Highly painful pharyngitis, cough, retrosternal pain. Viral exanthema may occur. There is massive bleeding tendency in/from the conjuctives (injection) and other mucous membranes. Hemorrhages and purpura are often severe. There is also oedema of the face and neck, lymphadenopathy, pleural or pericardial effusions, possibly bloody diarrhoea, convulsions as a sign of encephalopathy, hypovolaemic shock, anuria, coma.
LaboratoryThis section has been translated automatically.
lymphocytopenia, possibly neutrophilia
Increase in residual nitrogen
Increase in transaminase levels.
DiagnosisThis section has been translated automatically.
- Isolation of the pathogen from blood, pharyngeal washings and urine
- Virus antigen detection (ELISA)
- Antibody detection (immunofluorescence and ELISA).
Differential diagnosisThis section has been translated automatically.
Complication(s)This section has been translated automatically.
During pregnancy most severe clinical picture with high lethality.
If the disease survives, slow recovery, temporary hair loss and hearing loss.
TherapyThis section has been translated automatically.
Ribavirin (Virazoles): initially once/day 30 mg/kg bw for 6 days, then once/day 16 mg/kg bw for 4 days, then once/day 8 mg/kg bw i.v. for 2 days.
Notice! In Germany, Virazole is only approved for inhalation application, but internationally also for i.v. application. There is an exceptional indication for i.v. application!
Early application of reconvalescent plasma (abandoned due to possible transmission of hepatitis B, C and HI virus).
ProphylaxisThis section has been translated automatically.
Rodent control. Observance of general hygiene in health care.
Sick people must be strictly isolated.
Pre-exposure to ribavirin for laboratory staff, doctors, etc.
Post-exposure ribavirin intake is critically discussed and is generally not recommended.
Note(s)This section has been translated automatically.
Remember! Suspected illness, illness and death must be reported by the doctor to the public health department by name according to §6 IfSG. According to § 7 IfSG there is an obligation to report in case of direct or indirect evidence of the virus.
LiteratureThis section has been translated automatically.
- Akpede GO et al (2018)Lassa fever outbreaks in Nigeria. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 16:663-666.
- Frame JD, Baldwin JM, Gocke DJ, Troup JM (1970) "Lassa fever, a new virus disease of man from West Africa. I. Clinical description and pathological findings". On J Trop Med Hyg 19: 670-676
The Lancet Infectious Diseases (2018). Lassa fever and global health security. Lancet Infect Dis 18:357.
Incoming links (6)Arenaviridae; Arena viruses; Argentine haemorrhagic fever; Classification of viruses; Hemorrhagic fever syndromes; Reporting requirement;
Outgoing links (4)Malaria; Purpura (overview); Rickettsiosis (overview); Virus exanthema (overview);
Please ask your physician for a reliable diagnosis. This website is only meant as a reference.