Coxsackie virus infection B34.1

Author: Prof. Dr. med. Peter Altmeyer

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Last updated on: 12.12.2021

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Coxsackie virus infections are associated with the following clinical pictures:

Triggering of dermatomyositis by coxsackie virus infections is also discussed.

Clinical features
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Laboratory diagnosis in the newborn/infant: Coxsackievirus PCR or ELISA from CSF, serum, throat swab or stool samples.

For confirmation of infection in the mother: Coxsackievirus PCR or ELISA from maternal blood and stool samples and from cord blood at delivery.

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In infections with coxsackie echoviruses in the first and second trimesters: Only exceptionally have fetal malformations (CNS, cardiovascular, gastroenteral, urogenital) been described. Abortion or intrauterine fetal death may occasionally occur in highly febrile conditions. The risk of fetal harm at birth is within the range of the so-called normal risk of +/- 3.5%. There is no evidence for an association of maternal enterovirus infection and fetal/child malformations or developmental disorders.

Maternal infection towards the end of the third trimester: Neonates of mothers with acute infection shortly before delivery may present with severe neonatal illness: sepsis, meningoencephalitis, myocarditis, hepatitis, coagulopathy.

The course of disease is usually severe in intrauterine transmitted infections, less severe in early postpartum infection (e.g. by contact with visitors or in neonatal wards).

STAR complex: recurrent arthritides for months , febrile episodes, sore throat and a maculo-papular exanthema.

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A specific antiretroviral therapy is not yet available. Successes ( off-label use!) with Pleconaril (virustatic agent, effective for rhinoviruses) have been described in individual case reports.

The value of IVIG therapy, e.g. with Intratect, for newborns and for contact infants or persons, as recommended so far, has not been proven.

Measures to limit infection: Refer maternity unit/neonatal unit for possible maternal infection. Good hygiene measures are important. Rooming-in of mother with child.

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  9. Utzig N et al (2003) Polio-like myelitis due to coxsackie virus B 3: Course Under Treatment with Pleconaril. Clin Padiatr 215: 286-287


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Last updated on: 12.12.2021