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Clinical featuresThis section has been translated automatically.
Integument: Flushing symptoms associated with itching attacks, provocable by vasoactive procedures and substances (excitement, warm soups, spicy foods, alcohol, salicylic acid, paracetamol, methocarbamol, mephenesin). With recurrent symptoms, planar cyanosis of the face and neck, telangiectasias, periorbital swelling. Pellagroid manifestations with xerosis, hyperkeratosis, and scaling on the neck and forearms occur when endocrine active substances secreted by carcinoid cells, such as serotonin, histamine, kinins, prostaglandins, become systemically active due to abolished hepatic inactivation, usually after liver metastasis.
- Abdomen:Periodic abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting.
- Heart: Thickening and shrinkage of the pulmonary and tricuspid valves and of the endocardium = endocarditis fibroplastica; signs of an acquired (mainly right-sided) valvular defect (tricuspid regurgitation and pulmonary stenosis), tachycardia, hypotensive crises, and asthmoid complaints. On the ECG: low voltage, atrial overload on the right, right ventricular hypertrophy and right bundle branch block. During carcinoid flush, coronary spasm with Prinzmetal angina may occur
- Pulmonary signs: bronchial asthma. Metabolic signs: including bouts of ravenous hunger with spontaneous hypoglycemia.
LaboratoryThis section has been translated automatically.
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Internal therapyThis section has been translated automatically.
- In case of inoperability or metastases conservative therapy: therapy of first choice: somatostatin derivative octreotide (e.g. Sandostatin). Initial 1-2 times/day 50 µg octreotide s.c. Then dose escalation to 3 times/day 100-200 µg s.c.
- Therapy of the 2nd choice: Interferon alfa-2a (e.g. Roferon) 3 times/week 3-6 million IU s.c. or polychemotherapy (Streptozocin, 5-fluorouracil, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin).
- Treatment of the accompanying symptoms:
- Flush: Kallikrein secretion: receptor blockers such as phenoxybenzamine (e.g. dibenzyran) 10-60 mg/day p.o.
Histamine secretion: clemastine(e.g. Tavegil) 1-2 mg/day p.o. or trial with H1-blockers (e.g. diphenhydramine) in combination with H2-blockers (e.g. ranitidine or cimetidine) 3 times/day mg p.o.
- Serotonin secretion: Cyproheptadine (e.g. Peritol) 6-30 mg/day p.o.
- Diarrhoea: Loperamide (e.g. Imodium) 2 times/day 1 bps. or Tinct. opii simplex 3 times/day 10-20 trp. p.o.
- Pellagroid symptoms: Nicotinamide (e.g. Nicobion) 200 mg/day p.o. or Nicotinic acid (e.g. Niconacid) 250 mg/day p.o.
Operative therapieThis section has been translated automatically.
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Note(s)This section has been translated automatically.
The term carcinoid, although well established in medical terminology, is no longer sufficient to cover the entire morphological and biological spectrum of neoplasias of the disseminated neuroendocrine cell system.
The WHO classification of 2000 therefore uses the superordinate terms neuroendocrine tumour (NET) and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEK) instead of the term carcinoid.
In detail, a distinction is made between neuroendocrine tumours with benign behaviour, questionable dignity, low-malignant behaviour and high-malignant behaviour in relation to their localisation and based on various morphological and biological criteria.
S.u. Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastroentero-pancreatic system (GEP-NET)
LiteratureThis section has been translated automatically.
- Boushey RP et al (2002) Carcinoid tumors. Curr Treat Options Oncol 3: 319-326
- Creutzfeldt W, Stöckmann F (1987) Carcinoid and Carcinoid Syndromes. On J Med 82: 4-16
- Feldman JM (1987) Carcinoid tumors and syndrome. Semin Oncol 14: 237-249
- Goede AC et al (2003) Carcinoid tumour of the appendix. Br J Surg 90: 1317-1322
- Kähler HJ, Heilmeyer L (1961) Clinic and pathophysiology of carcinoid and carcinoid syndrome. Results Inn Med Pediatrics 16: 292-559
- Lubarsch O (1888) On the primary cancer of the ileum together with remarks on the simultaneous occurrence of cancer and tuberculosis. Virchows Arch path Anat 111: 280-317
- Moller JE et al (2003) Factors associated with progression of carcinoid heart disease. N Engl J Med 348: 1005-1015
- Oberndorfer S (1907) Carcinoid tumors of the small intestine. Frankf Z Pathol 1: 425-429
- Rodriguez J et al (2003) Combined typical carcinoid and acinic cell tumor of the lung: a heretofore unreported occurrence. Hum Pathol 34: 1061-1065
Incoming links (16)Anaphylactic shock; Apud cells; Argentaffinoma; Argentaffinoma syndrome; Carcinoid cardiac syndromes; Carcinoid syndrome, malignant; Cardiomyopathy restrictive; China spice syndrome; Facial erythema; Net of the stomach; ... Show all
Outgoing links (15)Apud cells; Clemastine; Cyanosis; Cyclophosphamide; Cyproheptadine; Doxorubicin; Fluorouracil; Flush; Hyperkeratoses; Interferon alpha-2a; ... Show all
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