HistoryThis section has been translated automatically.
Nocard 1888; Eppinger 1890;
DefinitionThis section has been translated automatically.
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PathogenThis section has been translated automatically.
Gram-positive, aerobic rods (formerly assigned to fungi, like actinomycetes), which are widespread in the soil. Mainly Nocardia asteroides, also Nocardia brasiliensis, Nocardia madurae and Nocardia pelletieri. According to their natural occurrence in the soil, nocardia are exogenous infections.
Occurrence/EpidemiologyThis section has been translated automatically.
EtiopathogenesisThis section has been translated automatically.
Inoculation of the pathogen in the presence of wounds (skin nocardiosis, usually Nocardia brasiliensis) or by inhalation of the pathogen (pulmonary nocardiosis, usually Nocardia asteroides). Inoculation of contaminated material into the skin results in cutaneous nocardiosis. Inhalation of contaminated dust leads to pulmonary nocardiosis.
Person-to-person transmission does not occur.
Approximately 85% of affected patients are immunocompromised (HIV/AIDS, neoplasms, collagenoses, pre-existing chronic lung disease) - (Hémar V et al. 2018).
ManifestationThis section has been translated automatically.
Clinical featuresThis section has been translated automatically.
Superficial form: Especially on the feet and hands, abscessing nodules are found in a chain-like arrangement along the lymphatic drainage area (sporotrichoid spread), occasionally mycetoma formation.
Lymphocutaneous form due to Nocardia asteroides.
Oculoglandular form with conjunctivitis and lymphadenopathy may result from smear infection. Most commonly caused by Nocardia brasiliensis.
Pulmonary and systemic form especially in immunocompromised patients (Uttamchandani RB et al. 1994).
HistologyThis section has been translated automatically.
DiagnosisThis section has been translated automatically.
Pathogen detection in pus or sputum. The cultural detection is possible on universal culture media or media for tuberculosis diagnostics (e.g. Löwenstein-Jensen medium).
Differential diagnosisThis section has been translated automatically.
TherapyThis section has been translated automatically.
Internal therapyThis section has been translated automatically.
Antibiosis after antibiogram. 1st choice are sulfonamides like sulfadiazine (e.g. Sulfadiazine Heyl) 4-8-12g/day or cotrimoxazole (e.g. Cotrimox Wolff). Long-term treatment until several weeks after healing is important to avoid recurrence.
Alternatively (used more and more frequently due to increasing resistance of the pathogens) imipenem/cilastatin (e.g. Zienam 4 g/day) in combination with amikacin (e.g. Biklin 1 g/day) in maximum dosages can be considered.
Good results have also been described with minocycline (e.g. Klinomycin 100 Filmtbl.) 2 times/day 100 mg p.o. as monotherapy or in combination with sulfonamides.
If necessary, other antibiotics depending on the resistance of the pathogen.
Operative therapieThis section has been translated automatically.
Progression/forecastThis section has been translated automatically.
LiteratureThis section has been translated automatically.
- Dorman SE et al (2002) Nocardia infection in chronic granulomatous disease. Clin Infect Dis 35: 390-394
- Eppinger H (1890) On a new pathogenic Cladothrix and a pseudotuberculosis (Cladothrichica) caused by it. Beitr Path Anat 9: 287-328.
Gutiérrez C et al (2020) Nocardia cyriacigeorgica infection in AIDS patient. Rev Chilena Infectol 37: 322-326.
- Hémar V et al (2018) Retrospective analysis of nocardiosis in a general hospital from 1998 to 2017. Med Mal Infect 48: 516-525.
- Kandi V (2015) Human nocardia infections: a review of pulmonary nocardiosis. Cureus 7:e304.
- Maraki S et al (2003) Lymphocutaneous nocardiosis due to Nocardia brasiliensis. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 47: 341-344.
- Naka W et al (1995) Unusually located lymphocutaneous nocardiosis caused by nocardia brasiliensis. Br J Dermatol 132: 609-613.
- Nocard E (1888) Note sur la maladie des boeufs de la Guadaloupe. Ann Inst Pasteur 2: 293-302.
- Pintado V et al (2003) Nocardial infection in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Microbiol Infect 9: 716-720.
- Rees W et al (1994) Primary cutaneus nocardia farcinica infection after cardiac transplantation. Deutsch Med Wochenschrift 119: 1276-1280
- Salinas-Carmona MC (2000) Nocardia brasiliensis: from microbe to human and experimental infections. Microbes Infect 2: 1373-1381.
- Saubolle MA et al (2003) Nocardiosis: review of clinical and laboratory experience. J Clin Microbiol 41: 4497-4501.
- Uttamchandani RB et al (1994) Nocardiosis in 30 patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection: clinical features and outcome. Clin Infect Dis 18: 348-53
Incoming links (7)Bacteriae; Druze; Infectious diseases of the skin; Myzetome; Nocadiae; Organ transplants, skin changes; Sporotrichosis;
Outgoing links (17)Actinomycosis; Amikacin; Antibiotics; Coccidioidomycosis; Collagenoses; Cotrimoxazole; Cutaneous tuberculosis (overview); Histoplasmosis; Hiv infection; Hodgkin's lymphoma, skin manifestations; ... Show all
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