Monkey pox B04.x0

Author: Prof. Dr. med. Peter Altmeyer

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Last updated on: 11.02.2021

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Synonym(s)

Human monkeypox; Human monkeypox virus infection

Definition
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Sporadic infection with monkeypox virus occurring in rural areas of the tropical rainforest (Cameroon, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Gabon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ivory Coast, Central African Republic).

Pathogen
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orthopox virus, which has undergone an evolution independent of the variola virus.

Occurrence/Epidemiology
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Transmission is by direct contact or aerosol. 28% human-to-human transmission (the chain of infection breaks off quickly), otherwise through contact with sick animals. Approximately 65 infections reported annually. 30% of infections are subclinical. Lethal outcome possible. Presumably protected by smallpox vaccination.

Clinical features
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The clinical picture is similar to variola infection. Incubation period is about 12 days. The clinical picture begins with fever, a patchy exanthema, severe headache and back pain, and severe feeling of illness. Almost simultaneously, there is an outbreak of typical smallpox exanthema. Papules become pustules with typical central indentation. A high percentage of patients also develop mucosal involvement. The disease lasts 2-4 weeks. The efflorescences heal with scarring.

Diagnostics
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Pustule contents with electron microscopic detection of 300x200nm monkeypox virus.

Literature
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  1. Mukinda VB et al (1997) Re-emergence of human monkeypox in Zaire in 1996 Monkeypox Epidemiologic Working Group. Lancet 349: 1449-50
  2. Mukinda VB et al (1997) Re-emerge of human monkeypox in Zaire in 1996. dermatologist 48:598
  3. Meyer H et al (2002) Outbreaks of disease suspected of being due to human monkeypox virus infection in the democratic republic of congo in 2001 J Clin Microbiol 40: 2919-2921

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Last updated on: 11.02.2021