Monkey pox B04.x0

Author: Prof. Dr. med. Peter Altmeyer

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Last updated on: 29.05.2022

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Synonym(s)

Human monkeypox; Human monkeypox virus infection

History
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Since monkeypox was first diagnosed in humans in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in 1970, it has spread to other regions of Africa (primarily West and Central Africa), and cases have occurred outside of Africa in recent years.

Definition
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Sporadic zoonotic infection occurring in rural areas of the tropical rainforest (Cameroon, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Gabon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Central African Republic) caused by an orthopoxvirus and leading to a pox-like disease in humans.

Pathogen
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orthopox virus, which has undergone an evolution independent of the variola virus.

Occurrence/Epidemiology
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Transmission is by direct contact or aerosol. 28% human-to-human transmission (the chain of infection breaks quickly), otherwise through contact with sick animals. Approximately 65 reported infections annually. 30% of infections are subclinical. Lethal outcome possible. Presumed protection by smallpox vaccination. In 2022, increased incidence of infection was observed in men with homosexual contact.

Clinical features
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The clinical picture is similar to variola infection. Incubation period is about 12 days. The clinical picture begins with fever, a patchy exanthema, severe headache and back pain, and a severe feeling of illness. Almost simultaneously, there is an outbreak of typical smallpox exanthema. Papules become pustules with typical central indentation. A high percentage of patients also develop mucosal involvement. The disease lasts 2-4 weeks. The efflorescences heal with scarring.

Diagnostics
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Pustule contents with electron microscopic evidence of 300x200nm monkeypox virus.

Literature
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  1. Bunge EM et al. (2022) The changing epidemiology of human monkeypox-A potential threat? A systematic review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 16:e0010141.
  2. Mukinda VB et al (1997) Re-emergence of human monkeypox in Zaire in 1996. monkeypox Epidemiologic Working Group. Lancet 349: 1449-50
  3. Mukinda VB et al. (1997) Re-emergence of human monkeypox in Zaire in 1996. dermatologist 48:598.
  4. Meyer H et al. (2002) Outbreaks of disease suspected of being due to human monkeypox virus infection in the democratic republic of congo in 2001. J Clin Microbiol 40: 2919-2921.

Disclaimer

Please ask your physician for a reliable diagnosis. This website is only meant as a reference.

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Last updated on: 29.05.2022