Author: Prof. Dr. med. Peter Altmeyer

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Last updated on: 29.10.2020

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Fibroblast growth factor

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FGF is the acronym for "Fibroblast growth factor". FGF refers to a group of growth factors, also called FGF family, which comprises 23 members to date, FGF-1 to FGF-23. Important prototypes of the FGF family are FGF-1 (acidic-FGF) and FGF-2 (basic-FGF). They are encoded by different genes, which are localized on different chromosomes.

General information
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FGFs are 16 to 22 kDa-heavy signaling proteins with important regulatory functions for cell growth and differentiation. FGFs can be detected in almost all tissues of the organism.

FGFs play a key role in embryonic development. Disturbances of FGF functions lead to severe developmental disorders in the embryonic period.

In the adult organism, FGFs control tissue-repairing processes in wound healing and angiogenesis as well as the regeneration of nerves and cartilage tissue.

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FGF-1, for example, is the most active growth factor of the FGF family (pronounced angiogenic capacity). It consists of 141 amino acids. The coding gene is located on chromosome 5. Due to its extensive binding capacity with FGF receptors, the biological, mitogenic cell effects are particularly pronounced and are characterized by the initiation of cell proliferation, migration and differentiation.

FGF-2 is structurally closely related to FGF-1. The coding gene is located on chromosome 4. The effects of FGF-2 are similar to those of FGF-1, but not as intense. It is also produced by adipocytes and influences bone metabolism.

FGF-3 consists of 240 amino acids, its structure is about 40 % homologous with FGF-1; the coding gene is localized on chromosome 11. The physiological effects of FGF-3 are largely unknown. Possibly, the receptor plays a role during embryonic time. Mutations in the FGF-3 gene are observed in acrolentiginous melanoma.

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Melanoma acrolentiginous;


Last updated on: 29.10.2020