HistoryThis section has been translated automatically.
DefinitionThis section has been translated automatically.
Rare, chronic, bacterial infectious disease, often caused by staphylococci, but also by other bacteria, clinically and histologically similar to actinomycosis, originally misinterpreted as cutaneous mycosis (pseudomycosis), which can primarily affect the skin, the adjacent organ systems, but also all other organs as "visceral botryomycosis". Systemic botryomycosis is mainly expected in immunocompetent patients (Sirka CS et al. 2019).
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ClassificationThis section has been translated automatically.
Cutaneous and visceral forms of botryomycosis.
Occurrence/EpidemiologyThis section has been translated automatically.
Very rare. Common in immunosuppressed patients: HIV infection, diabetes mellitus, immunosuppressive therapy, cystic fibrosis, osteomyelitis, dental or jaw infections.
EtiopathogenesisThis section has been translated automatically.
ManifestationThis section has been translated automatically.
Clinical featuresThis section has been translated automatically.
Skin: The skin is affected as pure cutaneous botryomycosis in the vast majority of known cases of botryomycosis (about 60%). In immunocompromised patients, only a localized process is generally present.
A superficial skin lesion often acts as a portal of entry.
Clinically, localized, disseminated or even sporotrichoid distributed, therapy-resistant, chronically persistent or also chronically progressive, little painful, mostly ulcerated, red papules, deep-lying abscessing nodules (which always have to be incised again) or inflammatory plaques appear. Especially in immunocompetent patients (acquired or hereditary immunodeficiency), generalized, untreated even fatal clinical pictures with extensive swellings, as well as sporotrichoid nodules and ulcerations may occur.
The infection tends to progress to invasion of subcutaneous systems (fascia, muscle, or bone). If left untreated, a continuous, chronically abscessing, inflammatory, indurating process is the result (see Fig.).
Systemic involvement: Involvement of lungs, brain, peritoneum, prostate, liver, kidneys.
HistologyThis section has been translated automatically.
DiagnosisThis section has been translated automatically.
Clinic, histology, antibiogram after smear collection from skin florescences. Exclusion of deep mycoses.
Differential diagnosisThis section has been translated automatically.
TherapyThis section has been translated automatically.
Therapy of an underlying underlying disease. Often an antibiotic systemic therapy of several weeks is required.
External therapyThis section has been translated automatically.
Internal therapyThis section has been translated automatically.
Antibiosis against staphylogenic pathogens with Flucloxacillin (e.g. Staphylex Kps.) 3 g/day (max. 12 g/day) in 3 ED p.o. or Dicloxacillin (e.g. InfectoStaph) 2-3 g/day p.o. in 4 ED.
Successes are also reported with Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim (e.g. Cotrimoxazole 2 times/day 2 Tbl. p.o.).
As soon as possible antibiosis after antibiogram.
Note(s)This section has been translated automatically.
The term "botryomycosis" is derived from the Greek words "botrys" for grapes and myces for mushrooms.
Indicative of the aetiology of the disease are the eosinophilic granulated drusen (as in actinomycosis) in the abscesses, a phenomenon which according to the first describers is called"Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon".
Case report(s)This section has been translated automatically.
The 72-year-old patient was known to have severe atopic eczema since childhood, which required constant large-scale treatment with glucocorticoid externals. Several times inpatient treatments were necessary - because of eczema herpeticatum, because of recurrent pyoderma and because of the repeatedly exacerbated severe atopic eczema.
Seti about 4 years, little symptomatic, hardly painful, red papules and pustules formed on the left thigh, also deep-seated abscessing nodules, which had to be cleaved again and again.
Cultures obtained from pus on several occasions always yielded evidence of Staphylococcus aureus. Mycological examinations were always negative. Only histological examination of a deep excision biopsy resulted in the diagnosis of "botrymocosis" (evidence of eosinophilic granules in a central abscess section). After consistent 8-week therapy with flucloxacillin, the process healed.
LiteratureThis section has been translated automatically.
- Ahdoot-D et al (1995) Botryomycosis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Cutis 55: 149-152
- Askari K et al (2014) Cutaneous botryomycosis caused by Staphylococcus aureus in a patient with diabetes. Int J Dermatol 53: 413-415.
- Bashline B et al (2014) Disseminated botryomycosis: a rare presentation. J Drugs Dermatol 13:976-978.
- Bollinger O (1870) Mycosis of the lung in the horse. Virchows Arch 49: 583-586
- Bonifaz A et al (1996) Botryomycosis. Int J Dermatol 35: 381-388.
- Calegari L (1996) Botryomycosis caused by Pseudomonas vesicularis. Int J Dermatol 35: 817-818.
- de Vries HJ et al (2003) Botryomycosis in an HIV-positive subject. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 17: 87-90.
- Elas D et al (2014) Botryomycosis of the vulva: a case report. J Low Genit Tract Dis 18: e80-83.
- Karthikeyan K et al (2001) Cutaneous botryomycosis in an agricultural worker. Clin Exp Dermatol 26: 456-457.
- Mechow N et al (2014) Cutaneous botryomycosis diagnosed long after an arm injury. J Am Acad Dermatol. 71:e155-156
- Misri R et al (2019) Atypical manifestations of disseminated cutaneous botryomycosis mimicking dermatitis herpetiformis in an immunocompetent adult woman. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 85:511-513.
- Opie EL (1913) Human botryomycosis of the liver. Arch Intern Med 11: 425-439
Singh A et al (2020) Acute cutaneous botryomycosis of the hands. IDCases. 19:e00709.
- Sirka CS et al (2019) Cutaneous Botryomycosis in Immunocompetent Patients: A Case Series. Indian Dermatol Online J 10:311-315.
- Spitz G et al (1903) Contribution a l'etude des affections connues sous le nom d'actinomycose. Arch Parasitol 7: 428-431
- Yencha MW et al (2001) Cutaneous botryomycosis of the cervicofacial region. Head Neck 23: 594-598
Incoming links (5)Botryomykom; Ecthyma gangraenosum; Lung diseases, skin changes; Myzetome; Splendore-hoeppli phenomenon;
Outgoing links (13)Actinomycosis; Antibiotics; Cotrimoxazole; Hiv infection; Immunodeficiencies (overview); Mycoses, deep; Nontuberculous Mycobacterioses (overview); Polihexanide; Pseudomonas infections; Splendore-hoeppli phenomenon; ... Show all
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