Last updated on: 10.03.2021

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Modulins belong to the defensive pathogenicity factors with which pathogens impede or prevent an effective immune response of the host. Modulins alter the cytokine pattern of the host by mimicking specific enzyme functions. Modulins include the structures lipid-A, lipopolysaccharide, and peptidoglycan. Modulins are also known as bacteriokines and also influence cytokine release. In addition, cytokines such as EGF ( epidermal growth factor) can be misused as growth factors (as by M. tuberculosis).

However, the main focus is on modulating the cell physiology of lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells (APC).

Thus, among other things, T cells are prevented from clonal growth by bacteriokines and/or a polyclonal stimulation of bacterial mitogens(superantigens) takes place.

Last updated on: 10.03.2021