DefinitionThis section has been translated automatically.
In 2008, researchers from South Africa and the USA discovered an extremely aggressive new virus similar to the Lassa virus. The virus releases violent (haemorrhagic) fever accompanied by severe internal bleeding. Lujo haemorrhagic fever is a zoonosis endemic in southern Africa, often lethal, caused by a new arena virus.
PathogenThis section has been translated automatically.
The virus an Arenavirus (Arenaviridae) first appeared in September 2008 in a guide in Lusaka, Zambia, who was treated in a hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa. The pathogen was named "LuJo" after the first two letters of the cities visited, Lusaka and Johannesburg. The complete genomic analysis was carried out a decade ago (Briese T et al. 2009) and proves the novelty of the virus. In the meantime, the genomic structures of its pathogenicity criteria have also been identified (Briese T et al. 2009; Urata S et al. 2015).
Several arena viruses of the Old and New World are responsible for the different forms of endemic and epidemic haemorrhagic fever. Other members of the Arenaviridae family are not pathogenic.
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Occurrence/EpidemiologyThis section has been translated automatically.
With regard to the transmission of the virus, it can be assumed that the virus is transmitted via contact with blood or body fluids and less aerogenously. The pathogen is probably transmitted by contact with rat excrement.
Clinical featuresThis section has been translated automatically.
First symptoms of the infectious disease are high fever spikes, extreme muscle pain and a severe hemorrhagic exanthema. As the disease progresses, further bleeding, diarrhoea and organ failure occur.
TherapyThis section has been translated automatically.
Symptomatic; live vaccines from hyperattenuated strains of MOPV (non-pathogenic Mopeia virus) are in clinical trials to immunize against several if not all pathogenic arena viruses (Carnec X et al. 2018).
Note(s)This section has been translated automatically.
Arena viruses are widespread in rodents, such as rats or house mice. These rodents can spread the viruses through their feces and urine. Obligation to report: All clinically diagnosed cases of viral haemorrhagic fever and all evidence of viruses that can cause viral haemorrhagic fever must be reported.
Case report(s)This section has been translated automatically.
The virus a new arena virus (Arenaviridae) first appeared in September 2008 in a female guide in Lusaka, Zambia, who was treated in a hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa. The pathogen was named "LuJo" after the two initial letters Lusaka and Johannesburg.
A nurse who was also infected survived, she was treated with antiviral drugs such as ribavirin, which is also used against hepatitis C and B. However, the woman did not fully recover until less than a year after the infection.
The condition of the first Lujo patient deteriorated rapidly in hospital, and she died, as did three members of the clinic staff who had been caring for her. However, people who stayed near the patients without mouth protection were not infected.
LiteratureThis section has been translated automatically.
- Briese T et al (2009) Genetic detection and characterization of Lujo virus, a new hemorrhagic fever-associated arenavirus from southern Africa. PLoS pathog 5:e1000455.
- Carnec X et al (2018) A Vaccine Platform against Arenaviruses Based on a Recombinant Hyperattenuated Mopeia Virus Expressing Heterologous Glycoproteins. J Virol 92:e02230-17.
- Kunz S et al (2017) Breaking the Barrier: Host Cell Invasion by Lujo Virus. Cell host microbe 22:583-585.
- Sewlall NH et al (2014) Clinical features and patient management of Lujo hemorrhagic fever. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8:e3233.
- Urata S et al. (2015) Analysis of Assembly and Budding of Lujo Virus. J Virol 90:3257-3261.
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