DefinitionThis section has been translated automatically.
Ifosfamide, an intravenously administered nitrogen-lost derivative (molecular formula C7H15Cl2N2O2P) belongs to the cytostatic alkyl agents. Together with trofosfamide it is a cyclophosphamide analogue and is bioactivated and eliminated in a similar way. Ifosfamide andTrofosamide have the same spectrum of action and side effects as cyclophosphamide. Ifosfamide is used as a cytostatic drug for a number of malignant tumours. It is usually used in combination with other cytostatic drugs.
IndicationThis section has been translated automatically.
- Soft Tissue Sarcomas
- Osteosarcoma - IP (Ifosfamide, Cisplatin)
- Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas: Combination chemotherapy in patients with highly malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphomas that do not respond or respond insufficiently to initial therapy; combination therapy in patients with recurrent tumors
- Ewing sarcoma - VAI (vincristine, adriamycin, ifosfamide)
- Breast cancer: Palliative therapy for advanced, refractory or recurrent breast cancer
- non-small cell lung cancer: single or combination chemotherapy of patients with inoperable or metastatic tumours
- small cell bronchial carcinoma: combination chemotherapy
- Testicular tumours: Combination chemotherapy in patients with advanced tumours in stages II - IV according to TNM classification (seminomas and non-seminomas), which do not respond or do not respond sufficiently to initial chemotherapy
Children and young people
- Soft tissue sarcomas such as rhabdomyosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma - VAI (vincristine, adriamycin, ifosfamide), VAIA (vincristine, adriamycin, ifosfamide, actinomycin D)
- Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
- Ewing sarcoma - VAI (vincristine, adriamycin, ifosfamide), VAIA (vincristine, adriamycin, ifosfamide, actinomycin D)
- Germ cell tumor - PEI (cisplatin, etoposide, ifosfamide)
- Osteosarcoma - PAIM (cisplatin, adriamycin, ifosfamide, MTX)
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Dosage and method of useThis section has been translated automatically.
Most common dosage in monotherapy for adults: fractional application 1.2 - 2.4 g ifosfamide /m2 body surface area (KOF) (= 60 mg / kg body weight (KG)) i. v. / day for 5 consecutive days.
Alternatively: administration of a high single dose, usually as a 24-hour continuous infusion 5 g ifosfamide /m2 KOF (125 mg / kg bw) i. v.
Note: in case of high single dose, stronger hemato-, uro-, nephro- and CNS-toxicity must be expected!
Undesirable effectsThis section has been translated automatically.
- Diseases of the blood and lymphatic system: leukopenia (dose-limiting bone marrow depression) is common,
- Diseases of the nervous system: Typical for ifosfamide administration is also encephalopathy, which occurs in up to 50 % of patients (Ajithkumar T et al. 2007).
- Heart diseases: Arrhythmias
- Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract: nausea, vomiting
- Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissues: hair loss, hyperpigmentation of nails(melanonychia) and palms (Teresi ME et al. 1993)
- Diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract: haemorrhagic cystitis (Klastersky J 2003): the administration of MESNA (mercapto-ethanesulfonate sodium) is mandatory;
- In a larger study (Mashhadi MA et al. 2011), the following dose-dependent pathological kidney parameters were detected: proteinuria (15.5%), glycosuria (7.8%), increase in serum creatinine level (2.2%), hematuria (14.4%).
- Prospective pharmacone-induced diseases: possible development of secondary neoplasia, especially leukaemias and bladder tumours
- Vaccinations with dead vaccines are not effective under ifosfamide treatment because of its immunosuppressive and cytostatic effect.
- Vaccinations with live vaccines are potentially dangerous due to the cytostatic and immunosuppressive effect of ifosfamide and should therefore be avoided.
ContraindicationThis section has been translated automatically.
Pregnancy. Pregnancy should be ruled out before ifosfamide therapy, an existing pregnancy is a contraindication against the use of ifosfamide. During therapy sufficient contraceptive measures should be used to prevent pregnancy.
PreparationsThis section has been translated automatically.
LiteratureThis section has been translated automatically.
- Ajithkumar T et al (2007) Ifosfamide encephalopathy. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 19:108-114. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17355105/
- European Pharmacopoeia Commission (eds.): EUROPEAN PHARMACCOPE 6th Edition. Volume 6.0-6.3
- Klastersky J (2003) Side effects of ifosfamide. Oncology 65 Suppl 2:7-10. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14586140/
- Mashhadi MA et al (2011) Ifosfamide nephropathy in patients with sarcoma. Iran J Kidney Dis 5:238-241. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21725180/
- Sarosy G (1989) Ifosfamide--pharmacologic overview. Semin Oncol 16(1 Suppl 3):2-8.
- Maryadele J. ONeil: The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Published by: Merck & Co., Inc. 14th edition. Elsevier, Whitehouse Station
- Teresi ME et al (1993) Ifosfamide-induced hyperpigmentation. Cancer 71:2873-2875. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8385568/