Rosacea papulopustulosa

Author: Prof. Dr. med. Peter Altmeyer

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Last updated on: 01.08.2021

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Synonym(s)

acne rosacea; Copper fin; Couperose; inflammatory rosacea; papulo-pustular rosacea; papulopustular rosacea; Red fin; Rosacea; rosacea papulopustulosa; rosacea papulo-pustulosa; rosaceous papulopustular

Definition
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Frequent, chronic, initially recurrent, later persistent disease with centrofacial telangiectasias, persistent or flush-like onset, frequently temperature-induced or psychologically induced erythema, as well as prolonged inflammatory episodes with follicular and parafollicular papules and plaques, follicular papulopustules and pustules. In severe cases, the clinical picture is complicated by connective tissue and sebaceous gland hyperplasia (phyma). A relapsing course is characteristic.

Occurrence/Epidemiology
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In a population of working people > 30 years, a prevalence of 22% was reported. This would make it the most common skin disease of all. Women are more frequently affected than men. This statement is used in various publications. This statement is disputed in various studies (apparently there are worldwide regional differences in the prevalence pattern). Rosacea is more severe in men than in women.

Etiopathogenesis
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  • Not fully clarified.
  • Genetic dispositions with abnormalities in innate immunity (these concern the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin and its activator kallikrein 5), accompanying vascular dysfunction is considered the most likely cause. From this, a vicious circle is recruited from dermal damage, vasodilatation, vascular damage and inflammatory tissue reaction.
  • Trigger factors are UV rays, X-rays, heat, cold, excitation, coffee, alcohol, tea, hot spices (pepper, curry), temperature fluctuations, external (too fatty) cosmetics and hormonal fluctuations (menstruation, pregnancy, menopause).
  • The influence of Helicobacter pylori is controversially discussed.
  • The etiopathogenetic role of Demodex folliculorum (the hair follicle mite) in the development of papulo-pustular rosacea is still openly discussed. To what extent the good therapeutic effect of local antiscabiosa (1% ivermectin cream) correlates with this finding remains open at present.

Manifestation
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Occurs mainly in the 4th and 5th decade of life.

Clinical features
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Stage II rosacea. An acne-like, inflammatory clinical picture develops on a facial erythema that has existed for years, initially very variable and later persisting and is interspersed with telangiectasia (stage I rosacea). This leads to the formation of solitary, disseminated or even grouped, inflammatory reddened papules, papulopustules and pustules that persist for days or weeks, possibly containing fine-lamellar scaling, follicular, sterile or normal follicular flora and are only slightly painful. There is a variable feeling of tension in the facial skin. Mostly scarless healing of the individual "pimples".

In contrast to acne, comedones are always absent.

In the course of months and years the initially rather discreet inflammatory symptoms increase. The facial skin becomes increasingly edematous. This leads to an intermittent accumulation of papulo-pustules. The individual papules and pustules become larger, are distributed rather asymmetrically in the area of the cheeks (but the other parts of the face can also be affected) and require a longer period of time to heal.

In the following period the skin becomes increasingly firm. This leads to aggregation of the inflammatory papules and papulo-pustules, to larger, bumpy, firm, red, scaly and crusty inflammatory beds.

Differential diagnosis
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Therapy
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S. rosacea

Since June 2015, a 1% ivermectin cream (Soolantra®) has been approved for rosacea papulopustulosa, which was rated better in a larger collective compared to a 0.75% metronidazole cream. The Topicum is applied in a 1st cycle 1 x daily for 4 months. If necessary, this cycle can be repeated. In the extension study AATRACT a long-term effect could also be proven.

Alternatively a 15% azelaic acid gel (alternatively 10% cream) can be used (Skinoren®).

Alternatively and in addition a 0.3% brimovidine gel (Mirvaso®) is available for the treatment of facial erythema.

Literature
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S. rosacea

  1. Stein Gold Let al (2014)Ivermectin Phase 3 Study Group. Long-term safety of ivermectin 1% cream vs azelaic acid 15% gel in treating inflammatory lesions of rosacea: results of two 40-week controlled, investigator-blinded trials. J Drugs Dermatol 13:1380-1386

Incoming links (4)

Cxcl2; Cxcl6; Dadps; Rosacea gramnegative;

Disclaimer

Please ask your physician for a reliable diagnosis. This website is only meant as a reference.

Authors

Last updated on: 01.08.2021