Author: Prof. Dr. med. Peter Altmeyer

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Last updated on: 29.10.2020

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C-X-C motif chemokine 2; Gro-beta; Growth-regulated protein beta

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Chemokines, a subgroup of cytokines, are small (size between 8 and 10 kDa), chemotactically active proteins (signal proteins). They are common in all vertebrates, some virus types and bacteria. In humans, about 50 chemokines are currently known. A strongly conserved structural feature of all chemokines is a fixed group of cysteine residues that is stabilized by 1 or 2 disulfide bridges. This key structural position in the molecule is responsible for its fixed 3-dimensional structure.

In the CC chemokines, the cysteines follow each other directly, in the CXC chemokines they are separated (CC = acronym for cysteine-cysteine) by 1, in the CXXXC chemokines by 3 other amino acids. We show that CCL15 is processed in human synovial fluid by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and serine proteases. They transmit their signals by binding to chemokine receptors via G-proteins. Some chemokines have a pro-inflammatory effect, others have a regulatory effect on the formation, homeostasis and proliferation of tissues.

CXCL2 iat the acronym for "C-X-C motif chemokine 2" The C-X-C motif chemokine 2 (CXCL2) is a protein of the CXC chemokine family. The coding CXCL2 gene is located on chromosome 4 in a gene cluster with genes from other CXC chemokines. CXCL2 is formed by activated monocytes, macrophages and neutrophils at the site of an inflammatory reaction. CXCL2 recruits polymorphonuclear leukocytes and hematopoietic stem cells.

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CXCL2 binds to the chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptors and is formed in response to certain lipopolysaccharides, among other things.

CXCL2 is overexpressed together with other CXC chemokines(CXCL1,6,8) in rosacea papulopustulosa and other inflammatory processes of the skin (e.g. immune complex vasculitis, HIV, syphilis).

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  1. De Filippo K et al (2013) Mast cell and macrophage chemokines CXCL1/CXCL2 control the early stage of neutrophil recruitment during tissue inflammation. Blood 121:4930-4937.
  2. Li JL et al (2016) Neutrophils Self-Regulate Immune Complex-Mediated Cutaneous Inflammation through CXCL2. J Invest Dermatol 136:416-424.
  3. Takaoka Y et al (2016) Retinoic acid receptor agonist Am80 inhibits CXCL2 production from microglial BV-2 cells via attenuation of NF-κB signaling. Int Immunopharmacol 38:367-376.
  4. Tsai HC et al (2014) Expression of CXCL2 in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with HIV and syphilis or neurosyphilis. Inflammation 37:950-955.


Last updated on: 29.10.2020