DefinitionThis section has been translated automatically.
Frequent abnormal tissue reaction occurring in persons with the appropriate disposition, with reversible and very changeable inflammatory skin changes, which can occur even with moderate exposure to cold.
EtiopathogenesisThis section has been translated automatically.
Mostly vegetative disturbed vascular function with lack of adaptation to external temperature conditions (external temperatures little above 0 °C, especially in wet cold climate, also in cold damp work, e.g. in butchery professions), but also in local or systemic infections (tuberculosis patients). Of note is the clustering of frostbite-like lesions in COVID-19 infections (Sachdeva M et al. 2021). Such reactions may occur after COVID vaccinations (see also under Chilblain lupus).
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ManifestationThis section has been translated automatically.
Occurring mainly in female adolescents or adults with acrocyanosis. According to J.Darier, one is "probably predisposed to chilblains at the age of 5-15 years". Often there is general obesity or pasty habitus. Astonishing is the seasonal accumulation especially in spring and autumn. Occurrence in connection with occupational exposure to cold (butchers, cold storage workers, soldiers) or in homeless people is not rare. Increasingly, frostbite occurs in alpinists.
LocalizationThis section has been translated automatically.
Clinical featuresThis section has been translated automatically.
Notice! An apparently healthy red complexion can be an expression of chronic cold damage.
HistologyThis section has been translated automatically.
Differential diagnosisThis section has been translated automatically.
Chilblain-Lupus: permanent condition; there is no direct relation to a cold trauma.
Erythema nodosum: highly painful; no relation to an acute cold trauma. Mostly associated with infections.
Sarcoidosis: not related to an acute cold trauma
Erythema exsudativum multiforme: exanthema with shooting-disc-like plaques
Complication(s)This section has been translated automatically.
External therapyThis section has been translated automatically.
Internal therapyThis section has been translated automatically.
- Systemic therapy can be considered in the case of very pronounced clinical symptoms, e.g. with interval therapy with iloprost (0.5-2.0ng/kgKG/min.
- Furthermore, a trial with pentoxifylline (e.g. Trental) 2 times/day 400 mg p.o. can be initiated.
Progression/forecastThis section has been translated automatically.
ProphylaxisThis section has been translated automatically.
Especially in the transitional seasons, protection from cold and wet by wearing suitable clothing, warm footwear! Use of pocket ovens! Active vascular training through sauna, Kneipp cures, underwater massages, alternating warm foot baths, sports.
Note(s)This section has been translated automatically.
LiteratureThis section has been translated automatically.
- Ferrara G et al (2016) Cold-Associated Perniosis of the Thighs ("Equestrian-Type" Chilblain): A Reappraisal Based on a Clinicopathologic and Immunohistochemical Study of 6 Cases Am J Dermatopathol 38):726-731.
- Gomes MM et al (2014) Perniosis. BMJ Case Rep doi: 10.1136/bcr-2014-203732.
- Johnson-Arbor K et al (2014) Digital frostbite. N Engl J Med doi: 10.1056/NEJMicm1310126.
Kemper TC et al (2014) Frostbite of both first digits of the foot treated with delayed hyperbaric oxygen:a case report and review of literature. Undersea Hyperb Med 41:65-70
- Müller M et al (2007) Recurrent perniosis on the floor of a congenital acrocyanosis. Dermatology in Occupation and Environment 55: 28-34.
- Ohatee MA et al (2014) "Salt ice dare": a previously un-described mechanism of rapid frostbite injury. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 67:e248-249
Sachdeva M et al (2021) A Review of COVID-19 Chilblains-like Lesions and their Differential Diagnosis. Adv Skin Wound Care doi: 10.1097/01.ASW.0000737860.47789.3c.
Incoming links (24)Acrocyanosis; Ammonium bituminosulfonate, light; Benedictine herb; Chilblain lupus; Chlorophenoxamine; Clobetasol propionate cream hydrophilic 0.05% (nrf 11.76.); Cold panniculitis; Collodion; Cryopathies; Erythema nodosum; ... Show all
Outgoing links (17)Acrocyanosis; Autumn perniosis; Chilblain lupus; Clobetasol-17-propionate; Clobetasol propionate cream hydrophilic 0.05% (nrf 11.76.); Dermis; Edema; Erythema multiforme; Erythema nodosum; Follicular perniosis; ... Show all
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