Penicillin g

Last updated on: 29.10.2020

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Synonym(s)

Benzylpenicillin

Definition
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Benzylpenicillin, a batalactam antibiotic with the molecular formula C16H18N2O4S, is a bactericidal antibiotic(penicillin) that acts on proliferating Gram-positive bacteria. Benzylpenicillin is acid-labile and can therefore only be applied parenterally. Drugs with this active ingredient are injected intramuscularly or intravenously. The sodium and potassium salts of penicillin G act quickly, but are also rapidly eliminated. Depotpenicillin (e.g. benzyl-penicillin-procaine = procaine-penicillin G) is a white powder which is poorly soluble in water and guarantees a long period of effectiveness.

Half-life
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0,6–1 h

Effects
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Benzylpenicillin belongs to the group of active ingredients of betalactam antibiotics and is effective against a variety of pathogens, including various streptococci, non-penicillinase-forming staphylococci, pneumococci and meningococci. Benzylpenicillin acts by preventing internal cross-linking during the rebuilding of the bacterial cell wall (see below penicillins). The cell wall is weakened and perishes.

Benzylpenicillin is not effective against Gram-negative bacteria, with the exception of Gram-negative cocci. These bacteria have a further coating over the actual cell membrane. This makes it impossible for benzylpenicillin to access the cell membrane.

Benzylpenicillin is the classic example of the development of antibiotic resistance (development of resistance in gonococcal strains).

Spectrum of action
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Actinomycetes, Bacillus anthracis, Borrelia, Clostridium perfringens, Diphtheria bacteria, Erysopelothrix rhusiopathiae, Gonococci, Leptospires, Meningococci, Pasteurella, Group A and B Streptococci, Str. viridans, Anaerobic streptococci, Treponemes.

Indication
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Angina, pharyngitis, meningitis, lobar pneumonia, erysipelas, erysipeloid, borreliosis, leptospirosis, syphilis, actinomycosis, diphtheria, clostridial myonecrosis ( gas fire), tetanus, lichen sclerosus et atrophicus, circumscribed scleroderma.

Dosage and method of use
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Adults: 1-30 million IU/day in 4-6 weeks.Infants: 0.04-0.5 million IU/kg bw/day in 4-6 weeks.Infants: 0.2-1 million IU/kg bw/day in 4-6 weeks.Newborns: 0.075-0.2 million IU/kg bw/day in 3 weeks.

Preparations
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Benzylpenicillin potassium (CAS 113-98-4), Benzylpenicillin sodium (CAS 69-57-8), Benzylpenicillin procaine 1 water (CAS 6130-64-9), Clemizol penicillin (CAS 6011-39-8), Benzylpenicillin benzathine (CAS 1538-09-6), Benzylpenicillin benzathine 4 water (CAS 41372-02-5)

Commercial preparations:

INFECTOCILLIN® parenteral 1 Mega, 1 million I.U., powder for solution for injection or infusion; InfectoPharm Arzneimittel u. Consilium GmbH

INFECTOCILLIN® parenteral 5 Mega, 5 million I.U., powder for solution for injection or infusion, DSF InfectoPharm Arzneimittel and Consilium GmbH

INFECTOCILLIN® parenteral 10 Mega, 10 million I.U./100 ml, powder for the preparation of an injection or infusion solution, InfectoPharm Arzneimittel u. Consilium GmbH,

Penicillin G INFECTOPHARM® 1 Mega, powder for solution for injection or infusion InfectoPharm Arzneimittel u. Consilium GmbH

Note(s)
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With proven sensitivity, penicillin V has a 10 to 100 times stronger effect against staphylococci than staphylococci penicillins.

Literature
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  1. Wright GD (2007) Biochemistry. A new target for antibiotic development. Science 315: 1373-1374
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Last updated on: 29.10.2020