HistoryThis section has been translated automatically.
DefinitionThis section has been translated automatically.
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Occurrence/EpidemiologyThis section has been translated automatically.
Incidence: 1:298,000 live births.
EtiopathogenesisThis section has been translated automatically.
X-linked recessive mutations of the ATP7a gene (Cu-transporting ATPase, alpha polypeptide gene; gene locus Xq12-Xq13.3). The defective ATP7a gene codes for a copper-transporting ATPase, which is responsible for the intracellular transport of this trace element (Fujisawa C et al. 2019). Many symptoms of kinky hair disease can be attributed to the reduced activity of 5 copper-dependent enzymes, including lysyl oxidase and tyrosinase.
ManifestationThis section has been translated automatically.
LocalizationThis section has been translated automatically.
Clinical featuresThis section has been translated automatically.
Pale skin with pronounced cutis laxa.
Pili torti, sparse, low-pigment, bristly, lackluster, kinked hair.
Physical and psychomotor retardation, cramps, often hypothermia episodes. Growth disorders with scurvy bone changes. Progressive signs of decerebration. Mask-like face with roundish, drooping cheeks, often a rigid gaze.
Brain: Dilatation of the lateral ventricles, hypoplasia or atrophy of cerebrum and cerebellum, demyelination, leukomalacia, subdural hematomas.
Skeleton: metaphyseal gouging and spur formation, diaphyseal periosteal deposits, switch bones on the skull, osteoporosis, rarely platyspondylia.
Vessels: Tortuosity, dilatation (jump in calibre) and/or proliferation as well as corkscrew-like torsion of the intracranial and visceral arteries; bladder diverticula, vesicoureteral reflux.
LaboratoryThis section has been translated automatically.
DiagnosisThis section has been translated automatically.
Prenatal diagnosis from chorionic villi is more reliable than from amniotic fluid cells.
Chorionic villi: copper content increased (several times the norm), copper bound to trophoblast cell membrane is detectable by electron microscopy.
Amniotic fluid cells: increased copper absorption.
TherapyThis section has been translated automatically.
Progression/forecastThis section has been translated automatically.
Note(s)This section has been translated automatically.
The Ocipital horn syndrome has been known in the past as"cutis-laxa". However, it has the same genetic defect as the Menkes syndrome (Kinky hair disease), so that it can be classified as a negative variant of this syndrome.
LiteratureThis section has been translated automatically.
- Banci L et al (2004) Solution structure and backbone dynamics of the Cu(I) and apo forms of the second metal-binding domain of the Menkes protein ATP7A. Biochemistry 43: 3396-3403
- Fujisawa C et al(2019) ATP7A mutations in 66 Japanese patients with Menkes disease and carrierdetection
: A gene analysis. Pediatr Int 61:345-350.
- Garnica A et al (1994) Copper-Histidine treatment of menkes disease. J Pediatr 125: 336-337
- Kodama H et al (2003) Biochemical indicator for evaluation of connective tissue abnormalities in Menkes' disease. J Pediatr 142: 726-728
- Menkes JH, Alter M, Steigleder GK et al (1962) A sex-linked recessive disorder with retardation of growth, peculiar hair, and focal cerebral and cerebellar degeneration. Pediatrics 29: 764-779
- Tonnesen T, Kleijer WJ, Horn N (1991) Incidence of Menkes disease. Hum Genet 86: 408-410
- Tonnesen T, Petterson A, Kruse TA et al (1992) Multipoint linkage analysis in Menkes disease. At J Hum Genet 50: 1012-1017
- Vulpe C, Levinson B, Whitney S et al (1993) Isolation of a candidate gene for Menkes disease and evidence that it encodes a copper-transporting ATPase. Nat Genet 3: 7-13
- Zaffanello M et al (2003) Rare urological abnormalities in 2 cases of Menkes' syndrome. J Urol 170: 1335
Incoming links (12)Arginic succinic acid syndrome; Curly hair syndrome; Hair color changes; Hypotrichosis; Kinky hair disease; Menkes steel hair disease; Pili torti with copper deficiency; Plakoglobin; Rasopathies (overview); Steely-hair-syndrome; ... Show all
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