DefinitionThis section has been translated automatically.
Harmless, functional, temperature-dependent (hypothermia) disturbance of the dermal blood supply with flow slowing and hypoxygenation of the blood of the affected region and livider reticulation of the skin. In contrast to the non-functional, but organically caused livedo racemosa, the reticulation consists of closed rings, which have a diameter of 2.0-3.0 cm. The red marginal zones do not correspond to vessels running through here, but mark the zones with low oxygenated blood. The feeding vessel of this skin compartment is located in the center of the ring (see figure with schematic drawing).
Remark: In livedo racemosa, on the other hand, vascular occlusion occurs with irregular focal circulatory disturbance, which leads to bizarre "lightning figure-like" erythema patterns on the skin (see figures).
EtiopathogenesisThis section has been translated automatically.
Mostly functional, harmless dysregulation usually occurring after exposure to cold (livedo reticularis e frigore; cutis marmorata) and disappearing after warming.
Less frequently after exposure to heat ( erythema e calore).
- blood viscosity disorders (polyglobulia, cryoglobulinemia; paraporteinemia).
- central innervation disorders (apoplexy, trauma)
- in case of infections (e.g. hepatitis C, tuberculosis)
- in case of drug exposure (e.g. heparin, erythromycin, amantadine, interferons)
- after carbon dioxide arteriography
- in case of versch. Neoplasia (e.g. renal cell carcinoma).
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ManifestationThis section has been translated automatically.
Occurs regularly in infants in the first weeks of life when the skin cools slightly.
In adolescents and young (mostly female) adults as a harmless, functional disturbance of the blood circulation.
A livedo reticularis occurring beyond the neonatal period may be a sign of trisomy 18, Down syndrome, the rare Cornelia de Lange syndrome or hypothyroidism.
LocalizationThis section has been translated automatically.
Clinical featuresThis section has been translated automatically.
Large-mesh livid marbling, depending on the shape disappearing or appearing after heating or cooling. Frequently peripheral flat acrocyanosis which dissolves proximally into the livid ring structures of the livedo reticularis.
HistologyThis section has been translated automatically.
Differential diagnosisThis section has been translated automatically.
Livedo racemosa (see also fig.): irregular bizarre redness, no closed erythema circles.
Acrocyanosis: areal, mostly blue--red discolorations. Skin cool.
TherapyThis section has been translated automatically.
Roborative measures such as alternating warm baths, sauna, dry brushing, etc..
Progression/forecastThis section has been translated automatically.
LiteratureThis section has been translated automatically.
- Gibbs MB et al (2005) Livedo reticularis: an update. J Am Acad Dermatol 52: 1009-1019
- Endo Y et al (2011) Idiopathic livedo reticularis concomitant with polyclonal IgM hypergammopathy. Eur J Dermatol 21:266-267
- Fox M et al (2012) Livedo reticularis: a side effect of interferon therapy in a pediatric patient with melanoma. Pediatric Dermatol 29:333-335
- Ruiz-Genao DP (2005) Livedo reticularis associated with interferon alpha therapy in two melanoma patients. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 19: 252-254
- Sladden MJ et al (2003) Livedo reticularis induced by amantadine. Br J Dermatol 149: 656-658
- Zelger B et al (1995) Differential diagnosis of livedo syndromes. dermatologist 46: 369-379
Incoming links (26)Acrocyanosis; Amantadine; Angiomatosis, diffuse corticomeningeal; Arterial hypertension; Carbon dioxide arteriography; Coffin-lowry syndrome; Cornelia de lange syndrome; Cryoglobulins and skin; Cryoproteinemia; Cullen-hellendahl's sign; ... Show all
Outgoing links (7)Acrocyanosis; Carbon dioxide arteriography; Cornelia de lange syndrome; Down syndrome; Erythema e calore; Livedo racemosa (overview); sauna;
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