DefinitionThis section has been translated automatically.
PathogenThis section has been translated automatically.
Of medical importance are among others the species:
- Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato:
- Borrelia sensu stricto: causative agent of Lyme borreliosis (detected in about 60% of patients)
- Borrelia garinii: causative agent of Lyme borreliosis and polymeningoradiculitis (detected in about 7% of patients)
- Borrelia afzelii: causative agent of Lyme borreliosis and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (detected in about 90% of patients)
- Borrelia bavariensis: causative agent of Lyme borreliosis (detected in about 2% of patients)
- Borrelia spielmanii; (very rare)
- Borrelia recurrentis: causative agent of epidemic relapsing fever.
- Borrelia duttonii: causative agent of endemic relapsing fever.
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Occurrence/EpidemiologyThis section has been translated automatically.
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is transmitted by the bite of infected ticks and is detectable in about 5-35% of the ticks in Germany depending on the area (e.g. in Southern Lower Saxony in spring 2007 in 25% of the ticks examined). Rodents and birds serve as pathogen reservoirs.
|Geographical distribution of common Borrelia spp.|
|B. sensu strictu||Europe, USA||Ticks|
|B. garinii||Europe, Asia||Ticks|
|B. afzelii||Europe, Asia||Ticks|
|B. lusitaniae||Europe, Asia||Ticks|
|B. valaisiana||Europe, Asia||Ticks|
|B. recurrentis||North Africa, more rarely in Asia and South America||Lice, ticks, rarely transmission by blood transfusion|
|B. duttonii||Africa, Saudi Arabia, Iran, India, Central Asia, occasionally America and Southern Europe||Lice|
DiagnosisThis section has been translated automatically.
Determination of IgM/IgG antibodies against Borrelia using ELISA, IFT (indirect immunofluorescence test), in case of detection of anti-Borrelia antibodies additionally Western blot.
Antigen detection by PCR (blood, joint puncture, cerebrospinal fluid, skin biopsy, urine).
Pathogen detection from culture cultivation.
Note(s)This section has been translated automatically.
Ixodes ricinus can transmit other pathogens to humans besides Borrelia:
- TBE virus-a flavivirus, causative agent of early summer meningoencephalitis.
- Babesia, a protozoan parasitizing in erythrocytes, causative agent of babesiosis, a malaria-like disease.
- Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an intracellular Gram-negative bacterium of the genus Rickettsiales, causative agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis(ehrlichiosis)
- B. miyamotoi, causative agent of relapsing fever.
The patterns of anti-Borrelia antibodies observed in infected humans show a high degree of variability. A number of important immunodominant Borrelia proteins have been assigned to the clinical stages of the disease (see also Borrelia antigen structure).
- Early phase: the IgM antibody response is directed against outer membrane protein C (Osp C = 0uter surface protein C) and/or flagellin protein (FlaB: cross-reaction with spirochetes and flagellated bacteria, among others).
- As the Borrelia infection progresses, other proteins become involved in the immune response. A chromosomally encoded Borrelia protein p100 (synonym: p94 / p83) has been found to be a marker for the late stage of Lyme disease, as has OspA. It is generally accepted that in clinical routine an antigen mixture is useful instead of purified single Borrelia antigens. The antigen mixture should contain proteins such as Osp C, BmpA = Borrelia membrane antigen = p39 antigen), p41 antigen and p100 antigen.
- A number of conserved Borrelia proteins, such as heat shock proteins and parts of flagellin have epitopes that are also found on other bacteria (this leads to false positive results).
LiteratureThis section has been translated automatically.
- Baumgarten JM et al (2002) Lyme disease--part I: epidemiology and etiology. Cutis 69: 349-352
Brandt FC (2015) Genotyping of Borrelia on paraffin-embedded skin biopsies of cutaneous Lyme disease by IGS, ospA and OspC PCR. JDDG 13 (Suppl 1):156
- Burgdorfer W et al (1982) Lyme disease - a tick borne spirochetosis? Science 216: 1317-1319
- Montiel NJ et al (2002) Lyme disease--part II: clinical features and treatment.cutis 69: 443-448
- Donovan BJ (2002) Treatment of tick-borne diseases. Ann Pharmacother 36: 1590-1597
- Gissler S, Heininger U (2002) Borrelia lymphocytoma ("lymphadenosis benigna cutis"). Arch Dis Child 87: 12
- Grange F (2002) Borrelia burgdorferi-associated lymphocytoma cutis simulating a primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphoma. J Am Acad Dermatol 47: 530-534
- Hengge UR et al (2003) Lyme borreliosis. Lancet Infect Dis 3: 489-500
- Nadelman RB (1998) Lyme borreliosis. Lancet 352: 558-565
- Steere AC (2001) Lyme disease. N Engl J Med 345: 115-125
Incoming links (17)Atrophodermia idiopathica et progressiva; Bacteriae; Bacteriae, genetic structure; Borrelia burgdorferi; Borreliosis; Erythema migrans; Giant cell arteritis; Molecular mimikry; Mycobacterium bovis; Nf-kappab; ... Show all
Outgoing links (14)Acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans; Babesiosis; Borrel amédée; Borrelia antigens; Ehrlichiosen; Lyme borreliosis; Relapsing fever; Relapsing fever, endemic; Relapsing fever, epidemic; Sensu lato; ... Show all
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