Adnextumors of the skin (overview) D23.-

Author: Prof. Dr. med. Peter Altmeyer

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Last updated on: 26.01.2023

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adnexal neoplasms; adnexal tumors; peptic ulcers of the skin; Skin adnexal tumors; Welding gland tumours

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Benign and (rarely) malignant neoplasms, which originate from the appendages (adnexae) of the skin. The group of adnexal tumors comprises about 100 different entities.

Adnexal tumors are histologically extremely diverse, so that over the years a confusing nomenclature has developed, which is based more on outdated historical than on contemporary histogenetic facts.

Recent immunohistological findings have led to a better understanding of the histogenesis of cutaneous adnexal tumors.

Cutaneous neoplasms with ductal differentiation are divided into eccrine and apocrine, although this histological classification is not always clear.

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The diagnosis is based exclusively on histomorphological criteria. The classification is based on the visibly predominant direction of differentiation in:

Clinical features
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Mostly uncharacteristic clinical morphology, so that the diagnosis can generally only be made histologically.

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Adnexal tumors of the skin

Sweat gland tumors

Hair follicle tumors

Sebaceous gland tumors

Tumors of the nail organ

I. Benign

II. Hamartoma

III. malignant

I. Hyperplasia

Hair follicle nevus

II. adenoma

Giant pore

Hair sheath acanthoma



III. epithelioma

Tricholemmal cyst

tricholemmal keratosis


trichigenic trichoblastoma

epithelioma calcificans (pilomatrixoma)


desmoplastic trichoepithelioma

IV. Mesodermal



Perifollicular fibroma

V. Tumors with doubtful prognosis

Proliferating tricholemmal tumor

Proliferating tricholemmal cyst

VI. Malignant

Tricholemmal carcinoma


I. Benign

Sebaceous gland hyperplasia nevus sebaceus

Sebaceous gland epithelioma

Adenoma sebaporum (sebaceous gland adenoma

Sebaceous gland folliculoma

II. malignant

Sebaceous gland carcinoma

I. Benign

Verrucae vulgares

Granuloma teleangiectaticum

Mucoid dorsal cyst (= pseudocyst)


Koenen tumor


Glomus tumor

II. malignant

M. Bowen

Spinocellular carcinoma

Malignant melanoma


Metastases of other tumors

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  1. Abbate M et al (2003) Clinical course, risk factors, and treatment of microcystic adnexal carcinoma: a short series report. Dermatol Surgery 29: 1035-1038
  2. Kaddu S et al (2002) Warty dyskeratoma--"follicular dyskeratoma": analysis of clinicopathologic features of a distinctive follicular adnexal neoplasm. J Am Acad Dermatol 47: 423-428
  3. McCalmont TH (1996) A call for logic in the classification of adnexal neoplasms. At J dermatopathy 18: 103-109
  4. Mehregan DR et al (2003) Large cell acanthoma. Int J Dermatol 42: 36-39
  5. Montagna W (1984) Embryology and anatomy of the cutaneous adnexa. J Cutan Pathol 11: 350-351
  6. Petter G, Haustein UF (2001) Rare and newly described histological variants of cutaneous squamous epithelial carcinoma. Classification by histopathology, cytomorphology and malignant potential. dermatologist 52: 288-297
  7. Rudolph P (2002) Benign adnexal skin tumors. Pathologist 23: 71-78
  8. Rütten A (2002) Eccrine sweat gland carcinoma of the skin. Pathologist 23: 79-88

Incoming links (2)

Calretinin; Welding gland tumours;


Please ask your physician for a reliable diagnosis. This website is only meant as a reference.


Last updated on: 26.01.2023