DefinitionThis section has been translated automatically.
Ubiquitously occurring biogenic amine, which as a tissue hormone plays a role in many physiological and pathophysiological processes in the human body.
General informationThis section has been translated automatically.
- Histamine is an important mediator in inflammatory reactions (see below allergy; see below tryptase). The synthesis begins in the organism with decarboxylation from the amino acid histidine. Subsequent catalysis of the conversion by the enzyme histidine decarboxylase, subsequent metabolism by N-methyltransferase to N-methylhistamine or conversion to imidazole acetic acid by diaminooxidase (DAO).
- Storage in mast cells, basophilic granulocytes and nerve cells.
- Important regulatory function in the gastrointestinal tract (stomach acid production, gastrointestinal motility) and in the central nervous system (sleep-wake rhythm, appetite control).
- Occurrence in the human body, e.g. in the skin, lungs and intestines.
- Increased concentration in food e.g. strawberries, cheese, tuna, tomatoes, yeast, chocolate, red wine and sauerkraut (see also histamine intolerance).
- Increased release of histamine in the organism by additives, e.g. tartrazine (colouring agent in jelly babies) or tyramine (in cheese, yeast, chocolate) possible!
- Increased histamine release during stress.
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Clinical pictureThis section has been translated automatically.
After its release from basophilic leukocytes, histamine exerts the known pro-inflammatory effects on the vessels(Lewis Trias):
- Increase of capillary permeability at the endothelium (plasma exudation, wheal formation)
- Increase in blood flow due to vasodilation (redness; is attributed to the so-called axon reflex)
- Axon reflex on superficial nerves (reflex erythema)
LaboratoryThis section has been translated automatically.
Rapid metabolism in the blood to methylhistamine (half-life is only a few minutes), therefore a determination of methylhistamine in urine is diagnostically more suitable than detection in blood.
Notice! Before taking blood or urine samples, avoid foods with high histamine content.
LiteratureThis section has been translated automatically.
- Jansen SC et al (2003) Intolerance to dietary biogenic amines: a review. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 91: 233-240
- Renz H et al (2009) In vitro allergy diagnostics. Guideline of the German Society for Allergology and Clinical Immunology (DGAKI). Allergo J 19: 110-128