Food additives, colorants (e-numbers 100 - 199)

Author: Prof. Dr. med. Peter Altmeyer

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Last updated on: 29.10.2020

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Food colours are added to food to improve the appearance of the product or to make it appear more "natural". Some of the food colours are of "natural" origin, e.g. chlorophyll; some are produced synthetically. Synthetic colours are often involved in non-immunological pseudo-allergies. A potential representative of this reaction is E102, the yellow dye tartrazine.

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  • E100 Curcumin (yellow)
  • E101 Lactoflavin (yellow)
  • E101 a Riboflavin 5-phosphate (yellow) P
  • E102 Tartrazine (yellow) P
  • E104 Quinoline yellow (yellow) P
  • E110 Yellow-orange S (orange) P/A
  • E120 Cochineal (red) P/A
  • E122 Azorubine (red) P/A
  • E123 Amaranth (red) P
  • E124 Cochineal red A (red) P/A
  • E127 Erythrosine (red) P
  • E128 Red 2g (Red) P/A
  • E129 Allura red AC (red)
  • E131 Patent blue V (blue) P/A
  • E132 Indigotine (blue) P/A
  • E133 Brilliant blue (blue)
  • E140 Chlorophylls (green)
  • E141 Chlorophylline (green)
  • E142 brilliant acid green (green) P
  • E150 Caramel (brown)
  • E150 a Sugar caramel (brown)
  • E150 b Sulphite caramel (brown)
  • E150 c Ammonia caramel (brown)
  • E150 d Ammonium sulphite caramel (brown)
  • E151 Brilliant black BN (black) P
  • E153 Carbo medicinalis (black)
  • E154 Brown FK (brown) P
  • E155 Brown HT (brown)
  • E160 Carotenoids (orange)
  • E160 a alpha-, beta-, gamma-carotene (0range)
  • E160 b Bixin, Norbixin, Annato, Orlean (orange)
  • E160 c Capsanthin, capsorubin (red)
  • E160 d Lycobine (orange)
  • E160 e Beta-Apo-8-carotene (orange)
  • E160 f beta-apo-8-ethyl carotenate (orange)
  • E161 Xanthophylls (orange)
  • E161 a Flavoxanthin (orange)
  • E161 b Lutein (orange)
  • E161 c Cryptoaxanthin (orange)
  • E161 d Rubixanthin (orange)
  • E161 e Violaxanthin (orange)
  • E161 f Rhodoxanthin (orange)
  • E161 g canthaxanthin (orange)
  • E162 Beetroot, betanin ( red )
  • E163 Anthocyanins (red / blue)
  • E170 Calcium carbonate (grey)
  • E171 Titanium dioxide (white)
  • E172 Iron oxide, iron hydroxide (brown)
  • E173 Aluminium (silver grey)
  • E174 Silver (silver)
  • E175 Gold (gold-coloured)
  • E180 Ruby pigment (red)

Note: P = pseudoallergic reactions known

A= allergic reactions known

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  1. Jäger et al (2001) Food additives. In L. Jäger and B.Wüthrich food allergies and intolerances. Urbann&Fischer p.177-192

Outgoing links (2)

Curcumin; E 100;


Last updated on: 29.10.2020