Caryophylli floris aetheroleum

Authors: Prof. Dr. med. Peter Altmeyer, Prof. Dr. med. Martina Bacharach-Buhles

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Last updated on: 12.03.2024

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Clove oil; INCI labeling: Eugenia Caryophyllus

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Official essential oil (Caryophylli floris aetheroleum) extracted according to Ph.Eur.8 from flower buds, flower stems and leaves of the clove tree.

According to ÖAB, clove oil is obtained as an essential oil from the flower buds.

The clove oil and the clove itself are used, as well as the eugenol isolated from the clove oil. In the case of clove oils, a distinction is made between the oils of the different parts of the plant.

The clove is primarily used to extract eugenol(terpene). Eugenol has a slightly antiseptic, local anesthetic and antibacterial effect. Eugenol has a relevant sensitizing potential. Other ingredients are: luteolin, quercetin and beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside.

The quality is laid down in the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.).

HMPC mon ograph: Traditiona-use: mild inflammation of the oral and pharyngeal mucosa, temporary relief of caries-related toothache.

ESCOP monograph: local anesthetic in dentistry, disinfectant mouthwash, chronic anal fissures
Commission E monograph: inflammatory changes of the oral and pharyngeal mucosa, in dentistry for local analgesia.

Field of application/use
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Essential use in dentistry (e.g. root fillings) or as a flavouring in balsams, tea, etc.

Clove oil has proven to be a simple measure for acute toothache (dilute clove oil 1:1 with water and apply to the painful area).

Undesirable effects
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DKG has tested clove oil in vaseline at 2%. This application form is no longer available as a test substance in Germany. In this respect, the test substance Eugenol 1% in Vaseline is now (as of 2016) recommended. Clove oil consists of 90% eugenol, which is also contained in the fragrance mix.

Trade names
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A combination preparation of:

  • anise oil (5 mg per gram) +
  • Bitter fennel oil (10 mg per gram) +
  • Eucalyptus oil (2 mg per gram) +
  • Levomenthol (20 mg per gram) +
  • Clove oil (5 mg per gram) +
  • Peppermint oil (23 mg per gram) +
  • Sage oil (2 mg per gram) +
  • Thymol (1 mg per gram) +
  • Cinnamon oil (2 mg per gram) +

Is commercially available (Saliviathymol® N drops). Dissolve 10 drops in 100ml water, rinse several times with it.

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Clove is used in cooking and baking and in the food industry as a flavouring and odorant. Vanillin and isoeugenol as well as other eugenol derivatives are synthesized from eugenol .

Caution: Tissue irritation when used undiluted.

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  1. Chen G et al.(1991) Studies on warming the middle-jiao and analgesic effect of flos Caryophylli. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 16:429-432.
  2. Gao L et al.(2011) Preparative isolation and purification of five non-volatile compounds from Fructus caryophylli and Flos caryophylli by high-speed counter-current chromatography.Se Pu 29:1112-1117 .
  3. Lee KH et al (1998) Prolyl endopeptidase inhibitors from caryophylli flos. Arch Pharm Res 21:207-211.