DefinitionThis section has been translated automatically.
In an induced mutation, factors outside the cell - so-called mutagens - cause the mutations.
For example, chemical mutagens, such as so-called base analogues, can be incorrectly incorporated into the base sequence of the DNA, leading to point mutations. Certain chemical substances cause biochemical changes in the bases; if this creates a "gap" in the DNA strand, it can then be filled by an incorrect base.
Physical mutagens are, for example, UV light or X-rays. Here, bases can fuse with each other and be damaged, so that the structure and sequence of the DNA are changed. Special viruses can also induce gene mutations.
General informationThis section has been translated automatically.
A mutation is a permanent change in the genetic material .
The following types of mutations are distinguished: gene mutation , chromosome mutation , genome mutation . Mutations can occur spontaneously, e.g. during DNA replication or meiosis.
The following inheritance patterns are known:
- Somatic mutation (confined to somatic cells only).
- Germline mutations (the mutation is passed on to offspring).
Mutations are divided into the following forms:
- silent mutation
- neutral mutation
- loss-of-function mutation
- gain-of-function mutation
- conditional mutation
- lethal mutation