HistoryThis section has been translated automatically.
Virchow, 1854; Kloepfer, 1958
DefinitionThis section has been translated automatically.
Benign, congenital or acquired cutaneous tumour originating from smooth muscle cells of cutaneous vessels or the arrectores pili muscle (more rarely the tunica dartos and smooth muscle cells of the nipples and vulva), which can occur either singly or multiply.
You might also be interested in
ClassificationThis section has been translated automatically.
It's gonna be 3 guys and different. The association with internal tumors is clinically significant. :
- Piloleiomyoma (starting from the arrector pili of the hair follicle)
- Solitary leiomyoma...
- Leiomyomas of the nipple and the areola mamillae
- Multiple Leiomyomas (Leiomyomatosis)
- Segmental cutaneous leiomyomatosis
- Hereditary leiomyomatosis with leiomyomas of the uterus (MCUL = multiple cutaneous and uterine leiomyomatosis)
- Hereditary leiomyomatosis with renal cell car cinoma (HLRCC = hereditery leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinomas)
- Genital leiomyomas (dartoid leiomyomas, starting from the tunica dartos)
EtiopathogenesisThis section has been translated automatically.
In hereditary forms (hereditary multiple leiomyomas of the skin) autosomal-dominantly inherited mutations of the FH gene (fumarate hydratase; gene locus: 1q42.3-43) are detected. The FH gene encodes fumarate hydratase, which catalyses the reaction of fumarate to maleate in the citric acid cycle. In addition, the gene is ascribed properties as tumour suppressor genes.
Hereditary leiomyomatosis is associated with multiple leiomyomas of the uterus as well as with papillary renal cell carcinoma(hereditary leiomyomatosis with renal cell carcinoma).
LocalizationThis section has been translated automatically.
Clinical featuresThis section has been translated automatically.
Rare solitary papules or knots. Mostly multiple, often grouped, but also arranged in stripes (in the Blaschko lines), up to 0.5 cm in size, skin-coloured to brownish, often pressure-painful (see below the acronym ANGLES for other painful tumours of the skin) or temperature-reactive, slightly raised nodules. S.a. Myomatosis cutis miliaris. A flat, plate-like infection is rarer (see illustration), in which plaques of 8.0-10.0 cm in size can develop. It is not uncommon for smooth muscle hamartomas (mostly piloleiomyomas) to be associated with a Becker nevus.
HistologyThis section has been translated automatically.
Usually blurred tumour with irregularly shaped, interwoven bundles of smooth muscle cells separated from the epidermis by a narrow border zone. Characteristic features include spindly nuclear formations, a differently pronounced nuclear polymorphism. It is not uncommon to encounter single multinuclear giant cells, often with myxoid stroma and perivascular sclerosis (ancient leiomyoma, bizarre leiomyoma) as well as a honeycomb-like loosening of the cytoplasm (perinuclear halo formation) as an important differential diagnostic sign. S.a.u. Angioleiomyoma; see myofibroma below. In contrast to leiomyosarcoma, mitoses are absent.
Differential diagnosisThis section has been translated automatically.
Complication(s)This section has been translated automatically.
TherapyThis section has been translated automatically.
TablesThis section has been translated automatically.
Classification of leiomyomas according to origin and localization
starting from M. arrector pili
face, trunk extremities, mostly multiple occurrence
starting from the tunica muscularis of the vascular wall
mainly lower extremities, mostly solitary occurrence
starting from the tunica dartos
nipple, large labia, scrotal skin, mostly solitary occurrence
Note(s)This section has been translated automatically.
The tunica dartos (from gr. dartos, "skinned", "like raw meat") is a thin layer of smooth muscle fibers of the scrotum. Among other things, it serves to regulate the temperature of the testicles.
LiteratureThis section has been translated automatically.
- Albares MP et al (2002) Digital angioleiomyoma. Int J Dermatol 41: 527
- Brown-Falco M et al (2002) Scrotal leiomyoma. Dermatologist 53: 258-260
- Kanitakis J et al (2000) Cutaneous leiomyomas (piloleiomyomas) in adult patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Br J Dermatol 143: 1338-1340
- Kloepfer HW et al (1958) Hereditary multiple leiomyoma of the skin. At J Hum Genet 10: 48-52
- Konig A, Happle R (2000) Two cases of type 2 segmental manifestation in a family with cutaneous leiomyomatosis. Eur J Dermatol 10: 590-592
- Konig A et al (2001) Type 2 segmental cutaneous leiomyomatosis. Acta Derm Venereol 81: 383
- Lang K et al (2002) Type 1 segmental cutaneous leiomyomatosis. Clin Exp Dermatol 27: 649-650
- Latoni JD et al (2000) Pilar leiomyoma: a case report and review of the literature. Ann Plast Surgery 45: 662-664
- Sahoo B et al (2001) Zosteriform pilar leiomyoma. J Dermatol 28: 759-761
- Schüürmann M et al (2017) Smooth muscle hamartoma in volar skin. Dermatologist 68:916-918.
- Thiers B et al (2009) Cutaneous mainfestations of internal malignancy. Cancer J Clin 59: 73-98
- Thyresson HN, Su WPD (1981) Familial cutaneous leiomyomatosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 4: 430-434
- Virchow R (1854) On macroglossia and pathological new formation of striated muscle fibers. Virchows Arch (Pathol Anat) 7: 126-138
Incoming links (20)Angioleiomyoma; Angles; Angles; Ccl11; Dermatofibroma; Dermatofibroma hemosiderin storing; Dermatomyofibroma; Fibroelastic connective tissue nevus; Fibromyoma; Gardner syndrome; ... Show all
Outgoing links (15)Angioleiomyoma; Angles; Becker's nevus; Blaschko lines; Dermatomyofibroma; Excision; Fibroma; Keloid (overview); Leiomyomatosis hereditary with leiomyomas of the uterus; Leiomyomatosis hereditary with renal cell carcinoma; ... Show all
Please ask your physician for a reliable diagnosis. This website is only meant as a reference.