HistoryThis section has been translated automatically.
DefinitionThis section has been translated automatically.
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PathogenThis section has been translated automatically.
Hanta virus, belonging to the family Bunyaviridae. It comprises the groups:
- Hantaan group: Hantaan virus, Dobrava-Belgrade virus, Seoul virus.
- Puumala group: Puumala virus, Sin-Nombre virus, Prospect Hill virus, Black Creek Canal virus.
Occurrence/EpidemiologyThis section has been translated automatically.
The name Hantaan is derived from a river in Korea where thousands of UN soldiers became infected with Hantavirus (type Hantaan) during the Korean War in the 1950s.
Worldwide spread: mainly in Southeast Asia and Northern Europe, but also in Central Europe regions in Lower Saxony, Hesse, Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg as well as in Austria (parts of Styria).
In Northern and Central Europe: Puumala- (mainly in the South), Hantaan- (mainly in the North and East), Sin-Nombre- and Dobrava-Virus (mainly in the North and East).
In 2002, 0.3 cases/100,000 inhabitants were reported in Germany.
Transmission occurs mainly during certain activities such as working in sheds and summerhouses, attics and warehouses, in buildings with rodent infestation, during gardening and various outdoor recreational activities.
EtiopathogenesisThis section has been translated automatically.
Transmission of viruses of the Hantaan group: by real mice (fire mouse).
Transmission of viruses of the Puumala group: by voles (red-backed vole).
Rodents secrete viruses in urine, faeces and saliva to the environment. Transmissions are possible by direct contact (rare), oral ingestion and inhalation of infectious material, rarely by bite wounds or human-to-human transmission.
Endothelial cell damage by the virus as well as by host immunologic responses. Vascular dysfunction with intravascular coagulation and coagulation disorders leads to hemorrhages and organ failure. Nephropathy is caused by hemorrhagic interstitial nephritis involving glomeruli and tubules.
ManifestationThis section has been translated automatically.
Clinical featuresThis section has been translated automatically.
- Nephropathia epidemica:
- Occurring mainly in Central Europe, caused by viruses of the Puumala virus group.
- Incubation period: 5-35 (-60) days.
- Asymptomatic and oligosymptomatic courses are possible.
- Only in 5-10% development of clinical symptoms such as fever, lumbalgia, abdominal pain and headache, proteinuria and/or haematuria, restriction of renal function, oliguria up to acute renal failure (tubular necrosis).
- Hemorrhagic fever with renal symptoms:
- Occurring predominantly in East Asia (China, Korea) or in Southeast Asia (Thailand), caused by Hantaan virus group. The serotype Dobrava can cause haemorrhagic fever.
- Fever, dizziness, headache and backache (toxic phase lasting 4-7 days), leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia, petechiae on trunk and soft palate, capillary leakage syndrome with hypotension. Renal phase with oliguria, polyuria, hypertension (with possible cerebrovascular complications), mucosal bleeding and pulmonary edema.
- Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (also Hantavirus Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome):
- Most severe form of hantavirus pulmonary disease. Isolated cases and outbreaks have so far been described exclusively in America. Caused by viruses of the Puumala virus group. The Puumala virus, which is widespread in Central Europe, can cause pulmonary dysfunction and lung disease (milder courses).
- Incubation period: 3 days to 6 weeks.
- Interstitial pneumonia with pulmonary oedema and respiratory insufficiency.
LaboratoryThis section has been translated automatically.
Serum antibodies (IFT, ELISA) (strong cross-reactivity between the individual serogroups is possible)
Detection of viral antigens (indirect immunofluorescence)
Virus cultivation (no longer in use).
Differential diagnosisThis section has been translated automatically.
Hemorrhagic fever of other etiology
TherapyThis section has been translated automatically.
Progression/forecastThis section has been translated automatically.
- Nephropathia epidemica:
- lethality below 0.2%.
- Healing mostly without residual damage.
- Haemorrhagic fever:
- Reconvalescence over months, which goes into complete healing, but permanent damage is possible.
- Letality rate of 10%.
- Lifelong serotype-specific immunity.
- Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome: lethality of up to 50%.
ProphylaxisThis section has been translated automatically.
Note(s)This section has been translated automatically.
Remember! Detection of hantaviruses in connection with an acute disease is subject to notification by the head of the laboratory according to §7 IFSG.
LiteratureThis section has been translated automatically.
- Singh H et al. (2020) Novel therapeutic approaches toward Hantaan virus and its clinical features' similarity with COVID-19. Indian J Pharmacol 52: 347-355.
Incoming links (4)Bunyaviridae; Classification of viruses; Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome; Nephropathia epidemica;
Outgoing links (1)Petechiae;
Please ask your physician for a reliable diagnosis. This website is only meant as a reference.