Gels hydrophilic

Author: Prof. Dr. med. Peter Altmeyer

Our authors

Last updated on: 12.01.2021

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Synonym(s)

Emulsion gels; Hydrocolloids; Hydrogels; Hydrophilic gels; Hydrophilic polidocanol gel 5%. (NRF 11.117.)

Definition
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Preparations whose bases are usually water, glycerol or propylene glycol gelled with suitable swelling agents such as tragacanth, starch, cellulose derivatives, carboxyvinyl polymers or magnesium aluminium silicates. As a rule, additional humectants (glycerol 10%, propylene glycol, sorbitol solution) are included to ensure the elasticity of the drying films by retaining residual water. They must be preserved in order to prevent the rapid onset of mould and germ multiplication. They are divided into:

  • Film-forming organic hydrogel formers (methyl cellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose, starch, carmellose, alginates): Gels which, after evaporation of water, form drying films on the surface of the skin.
  • Anionic polyacrylates: hydrogels which can be rubbed into the skin and have a pronounced deep action which can be enhanced by the addition of isopropanol or ethanol.

Pharmacodynamics (Effect)
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Grease-free, washable bases, which have a cooling effect through evaporation of water or alcohol additives.

Incompatibility
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  • Chlorocresol, eucalyptol, hexachlorophene, cod liver oil, β-naphthol, nitrofurazone, oleum thyme, oxytetracycline-HCl, phenol. liquefact., Pix betulin., Pix junip., Pix lithanth. and tannin lead to inhomogeneities.
  • Chloramine T causes a change in smell.
  • Dithranol, pyrogallol, silver nitrate and tetracycline-HCl cause a colour change.

Recipe(s)
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Tables
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Compatibility of drugs in carmellose gel DAB

allantoin 0.5%

Dimethicone 10%

polidocanol 3%

Ammonium bituminosulfonate 10%

Erythromycin 2%

Polyvidone Iodine 10%

anthrarobin 2%

Urea 10%

Resorcinol 5%

azulene 0.2%

Hexachlorophene 0.5%

Salicylic acid 5%

Bacitracin 500 IU/g

Hydrarg. sulf. rubr. 1%

Sulphur 5%

Benzocaine 10%

Hydrocortisone 1%

Sorbic acid 0,1%

Benzoic acid 5%

Potassium Iodide 3.5%

Sulfadiazine 5%

Benzoyl peroxide 5%

Camphor 5%

Sulfisomidine 5%

Benzyl alcohol 10%

Liq. carb. deterg. 10%

tannin 1%

betamethasone-17-valerate 0,1%

Menthol 5%

terpiniol 1,5%

Bufexamac 5%

Merbromine 2%

Tetracaine HCl 0.5%

Calcium chloride 5%

Lactic Acid 5%

Tinctura Myrrhae 3%

Chloramphenicol 1%

β-Naphthol 6%

Tretinoin 0.1%

Chlorocresol 0.12%

Sodium chloride 10%

Triamcinolone acetonide 0.1%

Chrysarobin 5%

Nicotinic acid benzyl ester 3%

Undecylenic acid 5%

Clioquinol 5%

Nystatin 100,000 IU/g

Zinc oxide 10%

Clotrimazole 1%

Oleum Pini 1,5%

Zinc undecylenate 5%

Dexamethasone 0,1%

Oleum Thymi 1,5%

Dexpanthenol 5%

Phenol. liquefact. 1%

Compatibility of drugs in hydroxyethylcellulose gel

Acriflavinium chloride 2%

Clotrimazole 1%

Nicotinic benzyl acid ester 3%

allantoin 0.5%

dexamethasone 0.1%

Nystatin 100,000 IU/g

Aluminium chloride 10%

Dexpanthenol 5%

Oleum Pini 1,5%

Ammonium bituminosulfonate 10%

Dimetindene maleate 1%

Pheniramine hydrogen maleate 1.25%

Amphotericin B 3%

Dimethicone 10%

polidocanol 3%

anthrarobin 2%

Diphenhydramine HCl 2%

Polyvidone Iodine 10%

Azulene 0.2%

Erythromycin 2%

Procaine HCl 2%

Bacitracin 500 IU/g

Ethacridine lactate 1%

Resorcinol 5%

Bamipin HCl 2%

Gentamicin sulfate 0.2%

Salicylic acid 5%

Benzalkonium chloride 0.5%

Urea 10%

Sulphur 5%

Benzocaine 10%

Hydrarg. sulf. rubr. 1%

Sorbic acid 0.1%

Benzoic acid 5%

Hydrocortisone 1%

Sulfadiazine 5%

Benzoyl peroxide 5%

Hydroxyquinoline sulfate 0.5%

Sulfisomidine 5%

Benzyl alcohol 10%

Potassium iodide 3.5%

Terpiniol 1.5%

Betamethasone-17-valerate 0.1%

Camphor 5%

Tetracaine HCl 0.5%

Bufexamac 5%

Liq. alum. acet. 20%

Tinctura Myrrhae 3%

Calcium chloride 5%

Liq. carb. deterg. 10%

Tretinoin 0,1%

Cetylpyridinium chloride 0,5%

Menthol 5%

triamcinolone acetonide 0.1%

Chloramphenicol 1%

Merbromin 2%

Tyrothricin 0.1%

Chlorphenoxamine HCl 1.5%

Methyl salicylate 5%

Undecylenic acid 5%

Chlortetracycline HCl 3%

Sodium chloride 10%

Zinc oxide 10%

Clioquinol 5%

Neomycin sulfate 0.5%

Zinc undecylenate 5%

Compatibility of drugs in aqueous carbomer gel DAB

allantoin 0.5%

Dimethicone 10%

Phenol. liquefact. 1%

Amphotericin B 3%

erythromycin 2%

polidocanol 3%

anthrarobin 2%

Urea 10%

Resorcinol 5%

azulene 0.2%

Hexachlorophene 0.5%

Sulphur 5%

Benzocaine 10%

Hydrarg. sulf. rubr. 1%

Sorbic acid 0,1%

Benzoyl peroxide 5%

Hydrocortisone 1%

Sulfadiazine 5%

Benzyl alcohol 10%

Camphor 5%

Sulfisomidine 5%

Betamethasone-17-valerate 0.1%

Cod liver oil 10%

Tannin 1%

Bufexamac 5%

Liq. carb. deterg. 10%

Terpiniol 1,5%

Chloramphenicol 1%

Menthol 5%

Tinctura Myrrhae 3%

chlorocresol 0.12%

Merbromin 2%

Tretinoin 0,1%

Chrysarobin 5%

β-Naphthol 6%

Triamcinolone acetonide 0.1%

Clioquinol 5%

Nicotinic benzyl acid ester 3%

Undecylenic acid 5%

clotrimazole 1%

Nystatin 100,000 IU/g

Zinc oxide 10%

Dexamethasone 0,1%

Oleum Pini 1,5%

Zinc undecylenate 5%

Dexpanthenol 5%

Oleum Thymi 1,5%

Gel former

Gel former [%]

Glycerol 85 [%]

Water [%]

NaOH solution 5% [%]

Isopropanol [%]

Glycerol gel DAC

Hydroxyethylcellulose

4,5

30

65,5

Carmelose sodium gel DAB

Carmellose sodium 600

5

10

85,0

Hydroxyethyl cellulose gel DAB

hydroxyethyl cellulose 10,000

2,5

20

87,50

Carbomer gel containing isopropyl alcohol DAB

Carbomer

0,5

-

73,50

1,0

25,0

Drugs

hydroxy-

ethyl-

cellulose-

gel

Carmellose gel

Water-containing carbomer

gel

2-propanol-containing carbomer gel

gel

e.g. hydroxyethyl cellulose gel DAB

e.g. carmellose gel DAB

e.g. aqueous carbomer gel DAB

e.g. 2-propanol containing carbomer gel DAB

Antiallergica

Diphenhydramine HCl 2%

+

(-)

-

-

Doxepin HCl 1%

+

-

-

-

Antibiotics

Chloramphenicol 1%

+

+

+

+

Chlortetracycline HCl 3%

+

-

-

-

Clindamycin dihydrogen phosphate 1%

+

-

-

-

Erythromycin 4%

+

(+/-)

(+/-)

+

Gentamicin sulfate 0.2%

+

(-)

-

-

Metronidazole 2%

+

+

+

+

Neomycin sulfate 0.5%

+

(-)

-

-

Oxytetracycline HCl 3%

-

-

-

-

Tetracycline HCl 3%

- - - -

Antimycotics

Bifonazole 1%

+

+

+

+

Ciclopirox-Olamine 1%

+

+

+

+

Clotrimazole 2%

+

+

+

+

Miconazole nitrate 2%

+

+/-

+/-

+/-

Nystatin 100.000 I.U./g

+

+

+

+

Glucocorticoids

Betamethasone-17-valerate 0.1%

+

+

+

+

Clobetasol-17-propionate 0,05%

+

+

+

+

Dexamethasone 0.05%

+

+

+

+

Hydrocortisone 1%

+

+

+

+

Hydrocortisone acetate 1%

+

+

-

+

Prednisolone 0.5%

(+/-)

(+/-)

(+/-)

(+/-)

Prednisolone acetate 0.5%

+

+

+

+

Triamcinolone acetonide 0,1%

(+/-)

(+/-)

+

+

Antiphlogistica

Ammonium bituminosulfonate 50%

+

-

-

-

Balsamum peruvianum 20%

(+/-)

-

-

-

Bufexamac 5%

+

+

+

+

Diclofenac sodium 1% (- 3%)

+

+

+

+

Liq. carb. det. 20%

(+/-)

+

(+/-)

(+/-)

Pix Lithantracis 10%

(+/-)

(+/-)

-

-

Antiseptics

Quinolinol sulfate monohydrate 10%

+

-

-

-

Quinolinol sulfate potassium sulfate 10%

+

-

-

-

Chlorhexidine digluconate 1%

+

-

-

-

Clioquinol 3%

-

(+/-)

+

(+/-)

dequalinum chloride 0.4%

+

-

-

-

Eosin disodium 1%

+

+

+

+

Ethacridine lactate 2.5%

+

-

-

-

fuchsin 0,5%

+

-

-

-

Methylrosanilinium chloride 0,5%

+

-

-

-

Polyhexanide 0.04%

+

-

-

-

Povidone iodine 10%

+

+

-

-

Silver nitrate 2%

-

-

-

-

Triclosan 3%

-

-

+

+

Zinc oxide up to 50%

+

+

+

+

Local anesthetics

Benzocaine 10%

+

+

(+/-)

+

Lidocaine HCl 10%

+

+

-

-

Polidocanol 5%

(+/-)

(+/-)

(+/-)

(+/-)

Procaine HCl 2%

+

-

-

-

Tetracaine HCl 0.5%

+

(+/-)

-

-

Other active ingredients

Allantoin 3%

+

+

+

+

Aluminium chloride hexahydrate 25%

+

-

-

-

Benzoyl peroxide 10%

(+/-)

+

(+/-)

+

Benzyl benzoate 30%

+

+

+

+

Capsaicin (oide) 1%

+

+

+

+

Dexpanthenol 5%

+

+

+

+

Diltiazem HCl 1%

+

-

-

-

Dimethicone 350 10%

+

+

+

+

Dithranol 3%

-

-

(+/-)

-

Estradiol 0.015%

-

+

+

+

Estradiol benzoate 0,015%

-

+

+

+

estriol 0.1%

-

+

+

+

Urea 40%

+

+

+

+

Hydroquinone 3%

-

-

+

+

Menthol 5%

+

+

+

+

Methoxsalen 0,15%

+

+

+

+

Lactic acid 5%

+

-

-

-

Minoxidil 5%

+

+

+

+

Sodium chloride 10%

+

+

-

-

Nicotinic acid benzyl ester 3%

+

+

+

+

Salicylic acid 20%

+

+

-

-

Sulphur 10%

+

+

+

+

Tannin 20%

-

+

+

+

Testosterone propionate 2%

+

+

+

+

Tretinoin 0.1%

+

+

+

+

Authors

Last updated on: 12.01.2021