HistoryThis section has been translated automatically.
DefinitionThis section has been translated automatically.
Postmenopausal-onset, circumscribed, band-like, symmetric, fibrosing form of scarring alopecia (irreversible) in the frontotemporal hairline in women with lymphoid-histiocytic infiltrates around the hair follicles. Often associated with rarefication of the eyebrows. Less commonly, men suffer from this clinical picture. Frequently, this form of chronic insidious alopecia is associated with extremity-emergent keratosis pilaris (friction skin), which is clinically prominent in adolescence and early adulthood.
The Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia - FFA- Severity Index is used for standardized assessment of the severity of the clinical picture. The score includes spread, involvement of body and facial hair, skin involvement, mucosa and nail involvement.
If >/= 4 points with typical criteria for frontal fibrosing alopecia, the diagnosis should be made.
The frontal recession of the forehead-hairline with loss of hair follicle ostia counts with 2 points, the positive biopsy in one of the affected areas: frontal or temproal scalp area resp. eyebrows also counts with 2 points, 1 point each for the loss of at least 50% of the eyebrows and 1 point for follicular erythema on the frontal scalp, also 1 point for perifollicular scalp hyperkeratosis or dandruff on the frontal scalp.
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Occurrence/EpidemiologyThis section has been translated automatically.
Almost exclusively women. In a larger collective about 3% men were described.
EtiopathogenesisThis section has been translated automatically.
Unsolved. A variant of lichen planus follicularis or a partial manifestation of a so-called keratosis- rubra-pilaris syndrome is being discussed.
ManifestationThis section has been translated automatically.
Beginning of clinically noticeable symptoms between 56 and 60 years of age (in a larger collective, the mean age at the time of diagnosis was 61 years, ranging from 23 - 86 years).
Clinical featuresThis section has been translated automatically.
Mostly imperceptible onset without subjective symptoms: receding frontal hairline, spreading to parietal and occipital regions.
Effluvium is usually not noticed.
The disease only becomes evident when the chronic creeping receding of the frontal or temporal hairline becomes conspicuous (image comparison with earlier).
The clinical picture of the band-shaped fronto-temporal alopecia can be superimposed by an androgenetic effluvium (now the hair problem is noticed!).
Band-shaped, frontal or frontotemporal also exclusively temporal hairlessness (alopecia);
The clinical picture ranges from mild, grade I (frontal hairline recession of <1.0cm) to grade V (frontal hairline recession of >7 cm). The grade V condition is also referred to as "clown alopecia".
No hair follicles detectable in the affected aral;
Skin in affected areas markedly lighter, less tanned.
Discrete perifollicular redness or follicular keratotic papules in adjacent hair area.
Remark: Often the keratosis follicularis is not noticed anymore, because in the advanced age of the patient it does not show its typical expression (rubbing iron skin) but only "as not disturbing but rather welcome, hairless, smooth areas" of the extensor extremities (indications: no hair at all on the extensor sides of the forearms).
Clinically, 3 different patterns of regression of the forehead-hair boundary are distinguished:
- Type I: Band-like
- Type II: further foci of alopecia behind the forehead-hair line
- Type III: preserved frontal hairline, band-like pattern behind it (pseudo-fringe sign).
HistologyThis section has been translated automatically.
Differential diagnosisThis section has been translated automatically.
- Graham-Little-Lasseur syndrome: Variant of the lichen planus follicularis with follicular, pointed keratotic lesions on the trunk, the typical clinical and histological signs of the lichen planus and a scarred alopecia. Nail dystrophies are possible. No ulerythema; no keratosis pilaris.
- Lichen planus follicularis capillitii:minus variant of the Lichen planus follicularis. Otherwise see before!
- Alopecia marginalis: Reversible, mechanically caused hair loss due to chronic pulling, e.g. in case of a tight hairstyle. Zugalopecia with corresponding anamnesis and clinic. No follicular signs of inflammation.
- Alopecia androgenetica: No inflammatory phenomena of the follicles as characteristic for fibrosing alopecia and lichen planus follicularis.
- Alopecia areata: The type and duration of the "continuous receding hairline" is completely atypical of alopecia areata.
- Chron. discoid lupus erythematosus: The morphological pattern of fibrotic alopecia is atypical of CDLE. Mostly evidence of other active or scarred lesions.
TherapyThis section has been translated automatically.
General therapyThis section has been translated automatically.
Radiation therapyThis section has been translated automatically.
Internal therapyThis section has been translated automatically.
Remember! Search for Lichen planus stigmata! Finasteride2.0-5.0 mg/day p.o. In individual cases success with glucocorticosteroids, Ciclosporin A, Azathioprine, Thalidomide, Mycophenolatmofetil has been described.
Progression/forecastThis section has been translated automatically.
Note(s)This section has been translated automatically.
The entity of the clinical picture remains controversial.
It can be assumed that the clinical picture also occurs in men, but is not diagnosed due to the superimposed androgenetic alopecia.
LiteratureThis section has been translated automatically.
Banka N et al (2014) Frontal fibrosing alopecia: a retrospective clinical review of 62 patients with treatment outcome and long-term follow-up. Int J Dermatol 53:1324-1330
- Boms S, Gambichler T (2005) Postmenopausal frontal fibrosing alopecia (Kossard) Akt Dermatol 31: 30-32.
- Kossard S (1994) Postmenopausal frontal fibrosing alopecia. Arch Dermatol 130: 770-774
- Kossard S, Lee MS, Wilkinson B (1997) Postmenopausal frontal fibrosing alopecia: a frontal variant of lichen planopilaris. J Am Acad Dermatol 36: 59-66.
MacDonald A et al (2012) Frontal fibrosing alopecia: a review of 60 cases. J Am Acad Dermatol 67:955-961
- Pérez-Rodríguez IM et al (2013) Hyperpigmentation following Treatment of Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia. Case Rep Dermatol 23:357-362
- Samrao A et al (2010) Frontal fibrosing alopecia: a clinical review of 36 patients. Br J Dermatol 163:1296-1300
- Tosti A et al (2004) Frontal fibrosing alopecia in postmenopausal women. J Am Acad Dermatol 52: 55-60.
- Tremezaygues L et al (2012) Frontal fibrosing alopecia with androgenetic pattern. Dermatologist 63: 411-414
- Vañó-Galván S et al.(2014)Frontal fibrosing alopecia: a multicenter review of 355 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 70:670-678.
- Wagner G et al.(2016) Frontal fibrosing alopecia Kossard. Dermatologist 67:891-896.
- Blume-Peytavi U et al (2022) Frontal fibrosing alopecia - current knowledge. Dermatologist 73: 344-352
- Pindado-Ortega C et al (2021) Effectiveness of dutasteride in a large series of patients with frontal fibrosing alopecia in real clinical practice. J Am Acad Dermatol. 84: 1285-1294
Incoming links (7)Alopecia androgenetica in women; Finasteride; Lichen planopilaris; Madarosis; Postmenopausal frontal fibrosing alopecia; Ppfa; Ulerythema ophryogenes;
Outgoing links (12)Alopecia androgenetica in women; Alopecia areata (overview); Alopecia marginalis; Alopecia (overview); Dutasteride; Finasteride; Keratosis pilaris; Keratosis pilaris syndrome (overview); Lichen planus follicularis capillitii; Lupus erythematodes chronicus discoides; ... Show all
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