DefinitionThis section has been translated automatically.
Ammonium bituminosulfonate is a complex organic-chemical compound with a characteristic odor. Ammonium bituminosulphonate is produced by dry distillation of oil shale rich in sulphur (oil shale is produced in Seefeld, Tyrol, Bärental/Tyrol, Meride/Ticino and other places). Oil shale is produced from dead phytoplankton, which was stored under anoxic conditions for many thousands of years. After the dry distillation a sulphonation with concentrated sulphuric acid and finally a neutralisation with ammonia takes place. If the neutralization is carried out with sodium hydroxide, the sodium bituminosulfonate is formed.
Ammonium bituminosulfonate is a syrup-like black liquid. As a sulphonate salt, it is surface-active and soluble in water (essential difference to coal tar), glycerine, wool wax and vaseline. Ammonium bituminosulfonate is poorly soluble in fatty oils, ethanol and ether.
Spectrum of actionThis section has been translated automatically.
Ammonium bituminosulfonate is a multi-component mixture. The main components are water-soluble ammonium salts of thiophene sulphonic acids, ammonium sulphate. The content of organically bound sulphur is above 10.5 % according to the pharmacopoeia requirements of Ph. Eur. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are only present in small traces.
Ammonium bituminosulfonate has antiphlogistic, antiseptic, antimicrobial and anti-eczematous effects.
The antibacterial efficacy is very good against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus piermidis, Stretoococcus pyogenes, Propionibacterium acnes and, at higher concentrations (>5%), also against gram-negative bacteria.
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IndicationThis section has been translated automatically.
Used in various applications and dilutions (0.5%-50%) in the treatment of various skin diseases such as acne, perioral dermatitis, seborrhoeic eczema, furuncles (in case of furuncles, the application is carried out as so-called black pulling ointment or black ointment in 10, 20 or 50% concentration).
Undesirable effectsThis section has been translated automatically.
Allergic reactions to components of the extract. There is insufficient experience with use in pregnancy and lactation (Engst R et al. 2002)
Recipe(s)This section has been translated automatically.
- Ichthyol cream, skin-coloured 2% (W/O)
- Ichthyol 100%
- Ammonium bituminosulfonate paste 2% (W/O)
- Ammonium bituminosulfonate paste, skin-colored 2% (W/O)
- Ammonium bituminosulphonate 100
- Ammonium bituminosulfonate ointment 50% (O/W)
- Ammonium bituminosulphonate cream 5/10/20 or 50% (NRF 11.12.)
- Ammonium bituminosulphonate cream, zinc containing 5% (W/O)
- Ammonium bituminosulfonate cream 5% (W/O)
- Ammonium bituminosulfonate lotio 2%
- Ammonium bituminosulphonate zinc oxide shaking mix 2,5/5 or 10 % (NRF 11.2.)
- Ammonium bituminosulphonate zinc oxide shaking mix, ethanol containing 2,5 %, 5 % and 10 % (NRF 11.4.)
- Ammonium bituminosulphonate zinc oxide shaking cream 2% (W/O)
PreparationsThis section has been translated automatically.
Two ammonium bituminosulfonate variants are commercially available:
- the light ammonium bituminosulfonate variant "Ammonium bituminosulfonate, light" -monograph of the DAC as Leukichtol- which is used up to 10% in external applications.
- The most common dark ammonium bituminosulfonate variant, the so-called black traction ointment or black ointment in 10, 20 or 50% concentration (monograph of the European Pharmacopoeia).
Finished products: Ichtho Bad®, Ichtholan®, Ichthyol® (raw material for pharmacy prescriptions), Black Ointment Lichtenstein®, Thiobitum®, Drawing Ointment effect®, Sulfo Oil Bath Cordes®.
LiteratureThis section has been translated automatically.
- Cholcha W et al (1994) The adverse effects of dark sulfonated shale oil following local and systemic administration. Drug research 44:844-849.
- Diezel W et al (1992) Ammonium bituminosulfonates (Ichthyol). Anti-inflammatory effect and inhibition of the 5-lipoxygenase enzyme. Dermatologist 43:772-774.