DefinitionThis section has been translated automatically.
Pantothenic acid (from Greek panthos = from everywhere) belongs to the group of water-soluble B vitamins (B5). Pantothenic acid is oxygen resistant, but heat labile. The daily requirement of pantothenic acid is given as 4-10 mg.
Pantothenic acid is essential for the formation of coenzyme A. Coenzyme A (CoA) reacts with acetic acid and converts it into the activated form, activated acetic acid (acetyl-CoA) which catalyses the transfer of acyl groups in the metabolism. Coenzyme A (CoA) reacts with acetic acid and converts it into the activated form, into activated acetic acid (acetyl-CoA). Coenzyme A plays a central role in metabolism, as acetyl-CoA catalyzes the transfer of acyl groups (e.g. in the citrate cycle or fatty acid oxidation). Coenzyme A is involved in the build-up and breakdown of carbohydrates, fats and in the synthesis of cholesterol. In humans (including all vertebrates), pantothenic acid is produced by a reaction between beta-alanine and pantoic acid.
OccurrenceThis section has been translated automatically.
Pantothenic acid is mainly found in offal, eggs, milk and brewer's yeast. Furthermore in wholemeal products, avocado, nuts, rice, fruit and vegetables.
Clinical pictureThis section has been translated automatically.
Hypovitaminoses are extremely rare. They are only possible in connection with chronic intestinal diseases, alcohol abuse or chronic inflammation. Clinically, loss of appetite, inappetence, weight loss, constipation, fatigue, exhaustion, susceptibility to infections can occur as deficiency symptoms. Neurological disorders include burning skin sensations (burning-feed syndrome), paresthesia of the extremities with cramps and reflex disorders.
Hypervitaminosis is not known with oral application (in contrast to the fat-soluble vitamins) because the water-soluble substance is immediately excreted by the kidneys in excessive doses.
Dosage: The therapeutic doses for pantothenic acid preparations are 40-200 mg/day according to literature.
Note(s)This section has been translated automatically.
In cosmetic applications, pantothenic acid is used as an antistatic and hair conditioning agent in hair cosmetics. Furthermore pantothenic acid is also used in skin care products.