NLRP1

Author: Prof. Dr. med. Peter Altmeyer

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Last updated on: 06.08.2022

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Synonym(s)

AIADK; CARD7; CIDED; CLR17.1; DEFCAP; DEFCAP-L/S; MSPC; NAC; NALP1; NLR family; NLR family pyrin domain containing 1; PP1044; pyrin domain containing 1; SLEV1; VAMAS1

Definition
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NLRPs (acronym for "NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein), along with the NOD1 and NOD2 proteins, are members of the NLR (Nod-like Receptor) protein family and play a major role in innate immunity as pathogen recognition receptors (PPRs) . NLRPs, like NOD proteins, are expressed exclusively cytoplasmically. All NLRPs (they all contain a pyrin domain) are encoded by a common gene family in humans.

NLRP proteins are characterized by their ability to activate the inflammasome, a multi-protein complex. Activation of the inflammasome, leads to the expression of caspases that process and activate inactive interleukin-1beta and interleukin-18, initiating an inflammatory cascade.

General information
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NLRP1 is a cytosolic protein that in humans is encoded by the NLRP1 gene.

NLRP1, like other NLRPs, is one of the key mediators of programmed cell death. The NLRP1 protein interacts with caspase 1 and somewhat more weakly with caspase 9. Through this activation pathway, the interleukins interleukin-1β and interleukin-18 and a lytic form of cell death(pyroptosis(necroptosis) are processed. NLRP1 is activated by numerous microbial stimuli (Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin, Toxoplasma gondii, muramyl dipeptides, viral proteins (?).

Polymorphisms in the NLRP1 gene are associated with a familial form of vitiligo .

Literature
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  1. Chavarría-Smith J et al (2015) The NLRP1 inflammasomes. Immunol Rev 265:22-34.
  2. D'Osualdo A et al.(2012) NLRP1, a regulator of innate immunity associated with vitiligo. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res 25:5-8.
  3. Yang CA et al(2015) Inflammasomes and human autoimmunity: A comprehensive review. J Autoimmune 61:1-8.

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Last updated on: 06.08.2022