HistoryThis section has been translated automatically.
Heberden, 1802; Schönlein, 1832; Henoch, 1868
DefinitionThis section has been translated automatically.
Inflammation of small vessels (small vessel vasculitis), which is caused by deposition of circulating immune complexes or bacterial endotoxins in vessel walls with subsequent complement activation and is histologically presented as leukocytic vasculitis of post-capillary venules with fibrinoid swelling of the vessel wall and/or thrombi in the lumina (the synonyms usually describe only partial aspects). In contrast to the purpura Schönlein-Henoch, primary IgG/IgM vasculitis does not detect IgA immune complexes in the vessel walls.
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ClassificationThis section has been translated automatically.
It seems to be emerging that in IgA-negative leukocytoclastic vasculitis a clinical classification is useful according to:
- Leukocytoclastic vasculitiS (LcV) with systemic involvement.
- Leukocytoclastic vasculitiS (LcV) without systemic involvement (cutaneous LcV).
Both variants have an analogous etiology.
Occurrence/EpidemiologyThis section has been translated automatically.
The classical cutaneous immune complex vasculitis (including the "IgA-associated vasculitides e.g. the Purpura Schönlein) is a disease frequently occurring in large dermatological collectives. Its incidence is estimated at 10-20/100,000 per year.
EtiopathogenesisThis section has been translated automatically.
Circulating immune complexes can be detected in a large proportion of patients. They are of great etiopathological importance.
- Triggered by:
- Drugs (e.g., allopurinol, thiazides, sulfonamides, gold, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ketoconazole, tetracyclines, penicillins).
- Bacterial and viral infections (e.g., streptococci, staphylococci, N. meningitidis, N. gonorrhoeae, Escherichia coli, mycoplasma, M. tuberculosis, hepatitis B virus, herpes virus, influenza virus, cytomegalovirus)
- vaccinations (e.g. after COVid-19 vaccination/Wollina U et al. 2022)
- Fungal infections (Candida albicans)
- Protozoa (trypanosomes, Plasmodium malariae)
- Interaction of infection and drugs
- Autoantigens: e.g. in primary chronic polyarthritis (rheumatoid arthritis), systemic lupus erythematosus. Note: LcV in collagenoses is listed as a special form by some authors!
- Malignancies (e.g. lymphomas, hairy cell leukemia, rarely solid tumors)
- Food and food additives ( food intolerance)
- Idiopathic/unexplained (up to 50%).
ManifestationThis section has been translated automatically.
Occurrence both in adulthood (average 39.-49. LJ) and in childhood. Women are 2-3 times more frequently affected than men.
LocalizationThis section has been translated automatically.
Due to stasis phenomena, the lower legs are preferentially affected; in the case of higher acuity, also on the thighs or on the trunk at fixed clothing contact points. The probability of systemic involvement increases as soon as the skin symptoms appear above the belt line.
Clinical featuresThis section has been translated automatically.
The clinical picture corresponds to an acute chronic inflammatory systemic disease with different organ involvement. The leading clinical and dermatological symptom of "small vessel vasculitis of the leukocytoclastic type" is " purpura". The clinical picture depends, among other things, on the stage of development, the acute nature of the disease and the extent of organ manifestation (monorganic or polyorganic in about 50% of patients).
At the beginning there are often vague general symptoms with fever, uncharacteristic rheumatic complaints with (poly)arthralgias, arthritides or myalgias, more rarely myositides. The characteristic clinical-dermatological picture of leukocytoclastic vasculitis is purpura with lesions ranging from 0.1 cm to several centimeters. Depending on the acuity and the stage of development of the vasculitis, the purpura appears as hemorrhagic spots or papules (palpable purpura), accompanied by itching, pain or burning. In further stages of development, hemorrhagic vesicles or blisters, hemorrhagic plaques and consecutive pustules, erosions or ulcers may form.
LaboratoryThis section has been translated automatically.
Acute-phase reactions (high BSG, CRP, leuko- and thrombocytosis) go parallel with the acuteity of vasculitis. Circulating immune complexes (lowered complement: CH50,C3, Ced,C4), possibly pathological urine sediment (the urine status should be done at least 3 times in a row), blood in stool (the haemocult test should be done at least 3 times in a row) . Activity parameters are the soluble sIl-2 and factor VIII-associated antigen (extent of endothelial damage). In addition: smear test of the pharynx and tonsils. There is no diagnostic evidence of any parameter in the laboratory. In addition, immunological and molecular biological techniques should be used to exclude hepatitis C/B. Possible autoantibodies such as ANCA and ANA are both activity and diagnosis associated.
HistologyThis section has been translated automatically.
In early stages edema of the papillary dermis. Sparse, superficial, intramural and sleeve-shaped perivascularly oriented inflammatory infiltrate of lymphocytes, histiocytes and apoptotically decomposing neutrophil leukocytes (leukocytoclasia, nuclear dust) and, to varying degrees, eosinophilic leukocytes. Endothelial cells appear epitheloid swollen and protruding into the lumen. Fibrin is found in the vessel wall of post-capillary venules. At the same time there are perivascular accentuated erythrocyte extravasations of varying density. The exudation can lead to subepidermal blistering or even pustular formation. Vascular occlusion clinically results in a grey shade in the centre of the lesion and, depending on its extent, can lead to tissue necrosis, recognisable by spongiosis and fading keratinocytes. There seems to be a correlation between tissue eosinophilia and drug-induced vasculitis.
The following algorithm can be schematized:
|Accentuated around post-capillary venules|
|Damage to endothelial cells|
|Fibrin in/around vessel walls|
|Perivascular extravasation of erythrocytes|
|Edema in the papillary dermis|
|Variable number of eosinophils|
|No plasma cells or fibrosclerosis|
Direct ImmunofluorescenceThis section has been translated automatically.
Perivascular IgG and/or IgM deposits (in contrast to the Purpura Schönlein-Henoch in which perivascular IgA deposits occur)
DiagnosisThis section has been translated automatically.
Differential diagnosisThis section has been translated automatically.
TherapyThis section has been translated automatically.
For all severe leukocytoclastic vasculitis that do not show a self-limiting course:
- Predominant or exclusive affection of the skin: glucocorticoids ( prednisone, 60-100 mg/day) as monotherapy, in case of resistance to therapy in combination with azathioprine (100-150 mg/day), reduction after clinical treatment to the lowest possible maintenance dose.
- Alternatively, if resistant to therapy, high-dose IVIG therapy(e.g. Intratect) 0.5-1.0 g/kg bw every 28 days i.v.
- System involvement: glucocorticoids (prednisone 60-150 mg/day), possibly in combination with cyclophosphamide (100 mg/day), possibly cyclophosphamide as shock therapy (1 g as short infusion + 3 l liquid/day + mesna (uromitexane) 200 mg i.v. or orally. A total of 3 cycles in 2-4 weeks intervals).
- In severe cases, plasmapheresis may be added.
External therapyThis section has been translated automatically.
Progression/forecastThis section has been translated automatically.
I.A.'s prognosis is favourable. It depends on the acuteity and extent of internal organ involvement. In larger statistics, deaths have been reported in 2-3% of patients. Chronic recurrent course may indicate cryoglobulinemia or a persistent infection (e.g. hepatitis C).
Note(s)This section has been translated automatically.
- Absence of IgA deposits
- Age > 20 years
- Occurrence of eosinophilic leukocytes in the infiltrate
- Lower involvement of the intestinal tract.
LiteratureThis section has been translated automatically.
- Albrecht J et al (1999) Henoch-Schonlein purpura: successful treatment with Dapsone. Dermatologist 50: 809-811
- Egan CA et al (2000) Relapsing Henoch-Schonlein purpura associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa pyelonephritis. J Am Acad Dermatol 42: 381-383.
- Fervenza FC (2003) Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis. Int J Dermatol 42: 170-177.
- Fritsch PO (1991) Necrotizing vasculitis. Dermatol 42: 599-604; 661-670; 729-738.
- Galaria NA et al (2002) Henoch-Schonlein purpura secondary to subacute bacterial endocarditis. Cutis 69: 269-273
- Heberden W (1802) De purpureis maculis. In: Commentaries on the History and Cure of Diseases. Chapter 78, T. Payne (ed.), London.
- Hengge UR et al. (2002) Purpura fulminans. A fatal consequence of a widely used medication? Dermatologist 53: 483-487
- Enoch E (1868) On the relation of purpura and intestinal disorders. Berliner Klinische Wochenschrift 5: 517-519
- Enoch E (1874) On a peculiar form of purpura. Berliner klinische Wochenschrift 11: 641
- Kawasaki Y et al (2003) Clinical and pathological features of children with Henoch-Schoenlein purpura nephritis: risk factors associated with poor prognosis. Clin Nephrol 60: 153-160
- Loricera J et al (2015) Single-organ cutaneous small-vessel vasculitis according to the 2012 revised International Chapel Hill Consensus Conference Nomenclature of Vasculitides: a study of 60 patients from a series of 766 cutaneous vasculitis cases. Rheumatology (Oxford) 54: 77-82.
- Ratzinger G et al (2015) The vasculitis wheel-an algorithmic approach to cutaneous vasculitides. JDDG 1092-1118
- Ronkainen J et al (2002) The adult kidney 24 years after childhood Henoch-Schonlein purpura: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet 360: 666-670
- Sams WM (1980) Necrotizing vasculitis. J Am Acad Dermatol 3: 1-13.
- Schönlein JL (1832) General and special pathology and therapy. Written down after his lectures by some of his auditors and published unauthorized. Etlinger, Würzburg
- Singh H et al (2016) Vasculitis as a Presenting Manifestation of Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection: A Case Report. J Clin Diagn Res 10: OD25-26.
Wollina U et al. (2022) Severe leukocytoclastivc vasculitis after COVID-19 vaccination-cause or coincidence? Case reprot and literature review. Georgian Med News 324:134-139.
Incoming links (36)Acute hemorrhagic infantile edema; Allergic arteriolitis cutis; Arteriolitis hyperergica cutis; Arteritis allergica cutis; Cold purpura; Complement system; Cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis; Cutaneous small vessel vasculitis; Eosinophilia and skin; Folliculitis necrotizing lymphocytes; ... Show all
Outgoing links (28)Azathioprine; Cyclophosphamide; Erythema multiforme; Food intolerance; Glucocorticosteroids; Gold preparations; Hairy cell leukemia; Henoch-Schoenlein purpura; Immune complexes; Ivig; ... Show all
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