Foeniculi fructus

Authors: Prof. Dr. med. Peter Altmeyer, Prof. Dr. med. Martina Bacharach-Buhles

All authors of this article

Last updated on: 02.10.2022

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Synonym(s)

Fennel fruits; Fructus foeniculi. Fennel fruits

Definition
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Medicinally used dried ripe fruits of the common fennel also called bitter fennel. Here is a monogrpahy of the Commission E and monographs of the Commissions ESCOP, WHO, HMPC.

HMPC - Monograph: Bitter fennel, sweet fennel and fennel oil: traditional-use: mild gastrointestinal cramps, flatulence, flatulence. also mild menstrual cramps, also expectorant for coughs in colds.
ESCOP monograph: bitter and sweet fennel, and bitter fennel oil: dyspeptic complaints, mild, cramp-like gastrointestinal complaints, flatulence, but also catarrh of the upper respiratory tract. only the bitter fennel to relieve menstrual crampsCommission
E monograph: bitter fennel
and bitter fennel oil: dyspeptic complaints. mild, cramp-like gastrointestinal complaints, bloating, flatulence, also catarrh of the upper respiratory tract.

Empirical medicine: loss of appetite, infant dyspepsia with diarrhea, promotion of lactation, externally as an eyewash for fatigue symptoms.

Ingredients
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Efficacy determining substances are: 2-6% essential oils of which at least 60% is anethole (trans-anethole), 12-18% fenchone; as well as about 5% methylchaviol, 2% anisaldehyde and anic acid; furthermore at least 4% fatty oil with antioxidative substances, sugars, protein and various other substances. flavonoids.

Effects
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Promotes gastrointestinal motility, stimulates secretion and appetite, antimicrobial, spasmolytic, increases mucociliary activity.

Field of application/use
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HMPC - Monograph: Bitter fennel, sweet fennel and fennel oil: traditional-use: mild crampy gastrointestinal complaints, flatulence. also mild menstrual cramps, also expectorant for coughs in colds.
ESCOP monograph: bitter and sweet fennel, as well as bitter fennel oil: dyspeptic complaints, mild, cramp-like gastrointestinal complaints, flatulence, but also catarrh of the upper respiratory tract. only the bitter fennel for the relief of menstrual complaintsCommission
E monograph: bitter fennel
and bitter fennel oil: dyspeptic complaints. mild, cramp-like gastrointestinal complaints, bloating, flatulence, also catarrh of the upper respiratory tract.

Duration of use not longer than 2 weeks in adults, 1 week in children and adolescents between 4 and 12 years (HMPC).

Fennel honey is used as a traditional home remedy for colds and for disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Fennel tea is used in infants to relieve abdominal cramps. The two essential oils contained in the fennel seed, anethole and fenchone, are responsible for the taste, smell and healing effect. Anethole is also found in aniseed, for example, and causes the aniseed-like scent and taste of fennel. Fenchone, on the other hand, tastes bitter and camphor-like. The essential oil fenchone has an anti-inflammatory and mucolytic effect.

Dosage
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Daily dose 5-7g of drug. Crushed drug (there are numerous preparations available for this purpose) is administered as a tea infusion.

Undesirable effects
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Allergic reactions to fennel are known (see below celery-carrot-mugwort spice syndrome).

Contraindication
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Allergies to umbelliferous plants (fennel, caraway, celery, coriander or dill) or to anetholePregnancy
and breast-feeding: no safety studies. Children under 4 years of age,

Children and adolescents under 18 years of age should not use the essential oil (bitter fennel oil).

Trade names
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Laxative Stada®, Bronchial Tea 400, Breast and Cough Tea Stada® N, Dr. Klinger's Bergisch Bladder and Kidney Tea, Dr. Klinger's Bergisch Herbal Tea Nerve and Soothing Tea, Dr. Klinger's Stomach Tea, Fugacid® Flu Tea, Orbis® Cough and Brpnchial Tea, Roha® Fennel Tea ready to drink, Salviathymol® Drops, Four Winds Tea

Note(s)
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For children from 4-12 years - applications not longer than 1 week. Due to lack of data, the use in children < 4 years is not recommended. Also not during pregnancy and lactation.

Literature
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  1. Reuter J et al. (2010) Which plant for which skin disease? Part 1: Atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne, condyloma, and herpes simplex. JDDG 10: 788-796
  2. https://arzneipflanzenlexikon.info/fenchel.php
  3. https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/documents/herbal-monograph/final-community-herbal-monograph-foeniculum-vulgare-miller-subsp-vulgare-var-vulgare-fructus_en.pdf
  4. Wenigmann M. (2017) Phytotherapy medicinal drugs, phytopharmaceuticals, application. Urban & Fischer, pp. 106-107