DefinitionThis section has been translated automatically.
The cytostatically effective antibiotics are active ingredients produced either by Actinomyces species (Anthracyclines: Doxorubicin, Daunorubicin) or Streptomyces species(Bleomycin). Their antibiotic use was prohibited because of their considerable toxicity. They develop their cytostatic effect by intercalation into the DNA.
ClassificationThis section has been translated automatically.
- Daunorubicin (ALL, AML, Kaposi's sarcoma)
- Doxorubicin (bronchial, ovarian, breast cancer, lymphomas, soft tissue sarcomas)
- Epirubicin (sarcoma, breast carcinoma, stomach carcinoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma)
- Bleomycin (testicular tumors, Hodgkin's disease, NHL)
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Pharmacodynamics (Effect)This section has been translated automatically.
The anthracyclines have a tetracyclic basic structure and move between two DNA base pairs, preferably between guanine and cytosine(intercalation). This leads to an inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis. In addition, the inhibition of topoisomerase II leads to strand breaks. The glycoside bleomycin also acts by intercalation and the formation of free radicals, which leads to an interruption of the cell cycle in the G2 phase.
Undesirable effectsThis section has been translated automatically.
With anthracyclines, myelosuppression (especially daunomycin) and cardiotoxicity (especially doxorubicin) are dose-limiting. In addition, effluvium and even alopecia, gastrointestinal adverse events such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea occur. Furthermore, allergic symptoms can be observed. In the case of bleomycin, acute and chronic lung toxicities with pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis are in the foreground, while on the skin toxicities with exanthema and hyperpigmentation(flagellant dermatitis).
LiteratureThis section has been translated automatically.
- Graefe KH et al. non-selective cytotoxic chemotherapeutics (cytostatics) In: Graefe KH et al (Eds) Pharmacology and Toxicology. Georg Thieme Publisher Stuttgart S 672