DefinitionThis section has been translated automatically.
ClassificationThis section has been translated automatically.
- Subdivision according to the degree of atypia
|CIN I||mild dysplasia|
|CIN II||moderate dysplasia|
|CIN III||severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ (Cis)|
- Diagnosis in smear cytology according to Munich Nomenclature II (according to Soost)
|Cytological findings||Pap||Suspected Histology|
|Inconspicuous cell picture||I|
|inflammatory regenerative, metaplastic or degenerative changes, hyper- and parakeratosis cells||II|
|Dyskarioses in superficial and intermediate cells indicate mild to moderate dysplasia||IIID||CIN I, II|
|Dyskarioses of cells from deeper layers||IVa||CIN II, III (severe dysplasia)|
|Dyscariosis of cells from deeper layers, incipient invasion cannot be excluded||IVb||CIN II, III (C sharp)|
|Cells of an invasive cervical carcinoma or other malignant tumours||V||invasive carcinoma|
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EtiopathogenesisThis section has been translated automatically.
The development of a CIN is not as a rule, but rather rarely the consequence of a cervical HPV infection. The persistence of the high-risk HPV infection is decisive for the possible development of cancer. Only chronic infections of the same HPV type can lead successively to the development of in situ carcinomas and later to invasive carcinomas. Cofactors for this are multiparity (> 5 births), long-term use of ovulation inhibitors, cigarette abuse, age > 30 years, immunodeficiency. The average latency period between initial HPV infection and invasive carcinoma is 15-30 years.
ProphylaxisThis section has been translated automatically.
LiteratureThis section has been translated automatically.
- Bollen LJM et al. (1996) Human Papillomavirus DNA after Treatment of Cervical Dysplasia. Low prevalence in normal cytologic smears. Cancer 77: 2538-2543
- Causin RL et al (2021) A Systematic Review of MicroRNAs Involved in Cervical Cancer Progression. Cells 10: 668.
- Consensus statement. National Institutes of Health consensus development conference. (1997) Statement on cervical cancer. Gynecol Oncol 66: 351-361
- Koutsky L et al (1992) A cohort study of the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or 3 in relation to papillomavirus infection. N Engl J Med 327: 1272-1278
- Nobbenhuis MA et al (2002) Addition of high-risk HPV testing improves the current guidelines on follow up after treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Br J Cancer 2000 84: 796-801
- Nobbenhuis MAE et al (1999) Relation of human papillomavirus status to cervical lesions and consequences for cervical-cancer screening: A prospective study. Lancet 354: 20-25
- Petry KU (2007) What does HPV vaccination mean for gynaecological cancer screening. Dermatologist 58: 501-506
- Schneede P, Hofstetter A (2001) Diagnosis and therapy of genital diseases caused by human papillomaviruses (HPV). Guidelines of the German Society of Urology. AWMF Guidelines Register No. 032/040
- Speck LM (2006) Vaccines for the prevention of human papillomavirus infections. Skin Therapy Lett 11: 1-3
- Wright TC Jr et al (2002) 2001 Consensus Guidelines for the management of women with cervical cytological abnormalities. JAMA 287: 2120-2129
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