DefinitionThis section has been translated automatically.
L-glutamine is an alpha-amino acid that is not essential for humans and plays a central role in the nitrogen metabolism (universal amino group donor). Free L-glutamine is the amino acid with the highest concentration in plasma and muscle tissue (about 20nmol/L) and has the highest conversion rate of all amino acids. In blood plasma, glutamine makes up about 20% in the pool of free amino acids.
OccurrenceThis section has been translated automatically.
L-glutamine is the most important nitrogen transporter from skeletal muscle to intestine, kidney and liver.
High activities of glutaminase are found in lymphoid tissue (lymph nodes, spleen, thymus). The rate of glutamine utilization increases with lymphocyte activation. In vitro, lymphocyte proliferation depends on glutamine concentration. This also affects the phagocytotic activity of macrophages.
L-glutamine is proteinogenic. Thus, glutamine is required to supply the biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides for DNA synthesis.
Decreases in glutamine levels in blood and skeletal muscle are detectable after severe infections (sepsis), burns, major surgery, and excessive physical training.
Glutamine deficiency affects the function of various immune cells in vitro and in vivo.
L-glutamine is also an important messenger for the brain.
Note(s)This section has been translated automatically.
Cosmetics: Glutamine (INCI name for glutamine) is used in cosmetic formulations. Glutamine acts as an antistatic agent (reduces static electricity by neutralizing the electrical charge on the surface of the skin and hair), as a hair conditioning agent (makes the hair easy to comb, smooth, soft and shiny and gives it volume) and skin care product.
LiteratureThis section has been translated automatically.
- Agostini F et al (2010) Effect of physical activity on glutamine metabolism. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 13:58-64.
- Calder PC et al (1999) Glutamine and the immune system. Amino Acids 17:227-241.
- Castell L (2003) Glutamine supplementation in vitro and in vivo, in exercise and in immunodepression. Sports Med 33:323345.
- Holecek M (2013) Side effects of long-term glutamine supplementation. JPEN J Parent Enteral Nutr 37:607-616.
- Newsholme P (2001) Why is L-glutamine metabolism important to cells of the immune system in health, postinjury, surgery or infection? J Nutr 131(9 Suppl):2515S-2522S
- Soeters PB et al (2012) Have we enough glutamine and how does it work? A clinician's view. Ann Nutr Metab 60:17 26.