DefinitionThis section has been translated automatically.
Chemokines, a subgroup of cytokines, are small (size between 8 and 10 kDa), chemotactically active proteins (signal proteins). They are common in all vertebrates, some virus types and bacteria. In humans, about 50 chemokines are currently known. A strongly conserved structural feature of all chemokines is a fixed group of cysteine residues that is stabilized by 1 or 2 disulfide bridges. This key structural position in the molecule is responsible for its fixed 3-dimensional structure.
In the CC chemokines, the cysteines follow each other directly (see figure), in the CXC chemokines they are separated (CC = acronym for cysteine-cysteine) by 1, in the CXXXC chemokines by 3 other amino acids. Here we show that CCL15 are processed in human synovial fluid by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and serine proteases, produced and secreted by a variety of immune cells. They mediate their signals by binding to chemokine receptors via G-proteins. Some chemokines have a pro-inflammatory effect, others have a regulatory effect on the formation, homeostasis and proliferation of tissues.
CCL17, also known as C-C motif chemokine ligand 17 or TARC (thymus activity regulated chemokine) is a small, human cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. The coding CCL17 gene is located on chromosome 16 in humans together with the genes for the chemokines CCL22 and CX3CL1. Like CCL22, CCL17 binds to the chemokine receptor CCR4.
General informationThis section has been translated automatically.
Diseases with increased expression of CCL17, are atopic diseases such as:
Furthermore, elevated levels are detected in eosinophilic pneumonia and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis . Apparently, CCL17 is also expressed nonspecifically (by alveolar macrophages); this suggests increased CCL17 levels in chronic smokers.
In children with atopic disease (inhalant or nutritive type I allergies), a clear correlation between serum levels of CCL17 and the extent and intensity of allergic symptomatology(SCORAD) has been demonstrated.
Atherosclerosis: CCL17 was detected at high levels in damaged tissues in atherosclerosis.
CCL17 and carcinomas: CCL17 is very important in the response of the human body tocarcinoma development. Some cancers, such as breast cancer, produce CCL17, which attracts T-regulatory cells, promoting the cancer's ability to invade. On the other hand, CCL17 also activates tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. In this respect, the more CCL17 present in the area, the better the prognosis for survival or cure in many cancers.
LiteratureThis section has been translated automatically.
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